1887

Abstract

Integrons are genetic elements that contain a site-specific recombination system able to capture, express and exchange gene cassettes. Mobile integrons are widespread and often confer resistance to multiple antibiotics, due to the expression of the arrays of gene cassettes they carry. Although >300 cassette arrays have been described, < 10 array compositions prevail in the reports related to class 1 integrons. These common arrays are found in a broad variety of hosts and environments, highlighting the high level of horizontal dissemination of these elements amongst bacterial populations and species. Clonal expansion also contributes to the current prevalence and inter-regional spread of integron-carrying bacterial species. Here, we review the dissemination pattern of common cassette arrays with a focus on the bacterial species, the geographical dispersal pattern and the environments in which they reside. Conserved arrays of gene cassettes are found in at least 74 countries and 72 species present in different environments. The factors governing the further spread and population dynamics of these cassette arrays remain to be determined.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000099
2015-07-01
2021-07-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/161/7/1313.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000099&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adabi M., Bakhshi B., Goudarzi H., Zahraei S.M., Pourshafie M.R. (2009). Distribution of class I integron and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim constin in Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients in IranMicrob Drug Resist 15179184 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmed A.M., Shimamoto T. (2011). Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis in EgyptMicrobiol Immunol 55318327 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahmed A.M., Nakano H., Shimamoto T. (2005). Molecular characterization of integrons in non-typhoid Salmonella serovars isolated in Japan: description of an unusual class 2 integronJ Antimicrob Chemother 55371374 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahmed A.M., Motoi Y., Sato M., Maruyama A., Watanabe H., Fukumoto Y., Shimamoto T. (2007). Zoo animals as reservoirs of Gram-negative bacteria harboring integrons and antimicrobial resistance genesAppl Environ Microbiol 7366866690 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahmed A.M., Shimabukuro H., Shimamoto T. (2009a). Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli Salmonella from retail chicken meat in JapanJ Food Sci 74M405M410 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  6. Ahmed A.M., Younis E.E., Osman S.A., Ishida Y., El-Khodery S.A., Shimamoto T. (2009b). Genetic analysis of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic neonatal calvesVet Microbiol 136397402 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  7. Aibinu I., Pfeifer Y., Peters F., Ogunsola F., Adenipekun E., Odugbemi T., Koenig W. (2012). Emergence of bla CTX-M-15 qnrB1 aac(6′)-Ib-cr resistance genes in Pantoea agglomerans Enterobacter cloacae from Nigeria (sub-Saharan Africa)J Med Microbiol 61165167 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ajiboye R.M., Solberg O.D., Lee B.M., Raphael E., Debroy C., Riley L.W. (2009). Global spread of mobile antimicrobial drug resistance determinants in human and animal Escherichia coli Salmonella strains causing community-acquired infectionsClin Infect Dis 49365371 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  9. Al-Sanouri T.M., Paglietti B., Haddadin A., Murgia M., Bacciu D., Youssef M., Rubino S. (2008). Emergence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance in epidemic and non-epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi from JordanJ Infect Dev Ctries 2295301[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  10. Allen K.J., Poppe C. (2002). Occurrence and characterization of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins mediated by β-lactamase CMY-2 in Salmonella isolated from food-producing animals in CanadaCan J Vet Res 66137144[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  11. Aminov R.I. (2011). Horizontal gene exchange in environmental microbiotaFront Microbiol 2158 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  12. Antunes P., Machado J., Peixe L. (2006). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 and 2 integrons in Salmonella enterica isolates from different sources in PortugalJ Antimicrob Chemother 58297304 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bado I., Cordeiro N.F., Robino L., García-Fulgueiras V., Seija V., Bazet C., Gutkind G., Ayala J.A., Vignoli R. (2010). Detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, extended-spectrum β-lactamases and qnr alleles in enterobacterial isolates from the digestive tract of Intensive Care Unit inpatientsInt J Antimicrob Agents 36453458 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  14. Baharoglu Z., Mazel D. (2011). Vibrio cholerae triggers SOS and mutagenesis in response to a wide range of antibiotics: a route towards multiresistanceAntimicrob Agents Chemother 5524382441 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  15. Baharoglu Z., Bikard D., Mazel D. (2010). Conjugative DNA transfer induces the bacterial SOS response and promotes antibiotic resistance development through integron activationPLoS Genet 6e1001165 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  16. Baharoglu Z., Krin E., Mazel D. (2012). Connecting environment and genome plasticity in the characterization of transformation-induced SOS regulation and carbon catabolite control of the Vibrio cholerae integron integraseJ Bacteriol 19416591667 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bailey J.K., Pinyon J.L., Anantham S., Hall R.M. (2010). Commensal Escherichia coli of healthy humans: a reservoir for antibiotic-resistance determinantsJ Med Microbiol 5913311339 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  18. Barlow R.S., Fegan N., Gobius K.S. (2008). A comparison of antibiotic resistance integrons in cattle from separate beef meat production systems at slaughterJ Appl Microbiol 104651658 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  19. Ben Sallem R., Ben Slama K., Sáenz Y., Rojo-Bezares B., Estepa V., Jouini A., Gharsa H., Klibi N., Boudabous A., Torres C. (2012). Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy food-producing animals in TunisiaFoodborne Pathog Dis 911371142 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  20. Ben Slama K., Ben Sallem R., Jouini A., Rachid S., Moussa L., Sáenz Y., Estepa V., Somalo S., Boudabous A., Torres C. (2011). Diversity of genetic lineages among CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 producing Escherichia coli strains in a Tunisian hospitalCurr Microbiol 6217941801 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  21. Bennett P.M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteriaBr J Pharmacol 153(Suppl 1), S347S357doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707607[PubMed] . [Google Scholar]
  22. Binh C.T., Heuer H., Kaupenjohann M., Smalla K. (2009). Diverse aadA gene cassettes on class 1 integrons introduced into soil via spread manureRes Microbiol 160427433 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  23. Blahna M.T., Zalewski C.A., Reuer J., Kahlmeter G., Foxman B., Marrs C.F. (2006). The role of horizontal gene transfer in the spread of trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe and CanadaJ Antimicrob Chemother 57666672 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  24. Boucher Y., Labbate M., Koenig J.E., Stokes H.W. (2007). Integrons: mobilizable platforms that promote genetic diversity in bacteriaTrends Microbiol 15301309doi:10.1016/j.tim.2007.05.004[PubMed] .[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Boyd D., Peters G.A., Cloeckaert A., Boumedine K.S., Chaslus-Dancla E., Imberechts H., Mulvey M.R. (2001). Complete nucleotide sequence of a 43-kilobase genomic island associated with the multidrug resistance region of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 and its identification in phage type DT120 and serovar AgonaJ Bacteriol 18357255732 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  26. Boyd D., Cloeckaert A., Chaslus-Dancla E., Mulvey M.R. (2002). Characterization of variant Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance regions from serovars Typhimurium DT104 and AgonaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4617141722 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  27. Boyd D.A., Shi X., Hu Q.H., Ng L.K., Doublet B., Cloeckaert A., Mulvey M.R. (2008). Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), variant SGI1-I, and new variant SGI1-O in Proteus mirabilis clinical and food isolates from ChinaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 52340344 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  28. Caleja C., de Toro M., Gonçalves A., Themudo P., Vieira-Pinto M., Monteiro D., Rodrigues J., Sáenz Y., Carvalho C., other authors. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons in Salmonella enterica isolates from wild boars and Bísaro pigsInt Microbiol 141924[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  29. Cambray G., Guerout A.M., Mazel D. (2010). IntegronsAnnu Rev Genet 44141166 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  30. Cameron F.H., Groot Obbink D.J., Ackerman V.P., Hall R.M. (1986). Nucleotide sequence of the AAD(2″) aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase determinant aadB. Evolutionary relationship of this region with those surrounding aadA in R538-1 and dhfrII in R388Nucleic Acids Res 1486258635 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  31. Carvalho M.J., Martínez-Murcia A., Esteves A.C., Correia A., Saavedra M.J. (2012). Phylogenetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits of Aeromonas spp. from untreated waters for human consumptionInt J Food Microbiol 159230239 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  32. Casin I., Breuil J., Brisabois A., Moury F., Grimont F., Collatz E. (1999). Multidrug-resistant human and animal Salmonella typhimurium isolates in France belong predominantly to a DT104 clone with the chromosome- and integron-encoded β-lactamase PSE-1J Infect Dis 17911731182 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  33. Ceccarelli D., Bani S., Cappuccinelli P., Colombo M.M. (2006a). Prevalence of aadA1 dfrA15 class 1 integron cassettes and SXT circulation in Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from AfricaJ Antimicrob Chemother 5810951097 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  34. Ceccarelli D., Salvia A.M., Sami J., Cappuccinelli P., Colombo M.M. (2006b). New cluster of plasmid-located class 1 integrons in Vibrio cholerae O1 and a dfrA15 cassette-containing integron in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated in AngolaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 5024932499doi:10.1128/AAC.01310-05[PubMed].[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Chakraborty R., Kumar A., Bhowal S.S., Mandal A.K., Tiwary B.K., Mukherjee S. (2013). Diverse gene cassettes in class 1 integrons of facultative oligotrophic bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, IndiaPLoS One 8e71753 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  36. Chang C.Y., Chang L.L., Chang Y.H., Lee T.M., Chang S.F. (2000). Characterisation of drug resistance gene cassettes associated with class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Taiwan, ROCJ Med Microbiol 4910971102[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  37. Chen H., Shu W., Chang X., Chen J.A., Guo Y., Tan Y. (2010). The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in ChongqingEnviron Pollut 15824592464 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  38. Clark N.C., Olsvik O., Swenson J.M., Spiegel C.A., Tenover F.C. (1999). Detection of a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene (aadA) in Enterococcus faecalis Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43157160[PubMed].[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Collis C.M., Hall R.M. (1995). Expression of antibiotic resistance genes in the integrated cassettes of integronsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 39155162 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  40. Corkill J.E., Anson J.J., Hart C.A. (2005). High prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrA in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from blood cultures in LiverpoolJ Antimicrob Chemother 5611151117 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  41. D'Costa V.M., King C.E., Kalan L., Morar M., Sung W.W., Schwarz C., Froese D., Zazula G., Calmels F., other authors. (2011). Antibiotic resistance is ancientNature 477457461 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  42. Dahmen S., Mansour W., Boujaafar N., Arlet G., Bouallègue O. (2010). Distribution of cotrimoxazole resistance genes associated with class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in a university hospital in TunisiaMicrob Drug Resist 164347 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  43. Dalsgaard A., Forslund A., Serichantalergs O., Sandvang D. (2000). Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in ThailandAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4413151321 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  44. Dalsgaard A., Forslund A., Sandvang D., Arntzen L., Keddy K. (2001). Vibrio cholerae O1 outbreak isolates in Mozambique and South Africa in 1998 are multiple-drug resistant, contain the SXT element and the aadA2 gene located on class 1 integronsJ Antimicrob Chemother 48827838 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  45. Dawes F.E., Kuzevski A., Bettelheim K.A., Hornitzky M.A., Djordjevic S.P., Walker M.J. (2010). Distribution of class 1 integrons with IS26-mediated deletions in their 3′-conserved segments in Escherichia coli of human and animal originPLoS One 5e12754 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  46. Di Conza J., Ayala J.A., Porto A., Mollerach M., Gutkind G. (2005). Molecular characterization of InJR06, a class 1 integron located in a conjugative plasmid of Salmonella enterica ser. TyphimuriumInt Microbiol 8287290[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  47. Dolejská M., Senk D., Cízek A., Rybaríková J., Sychra O., Literák I. (2008). Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates in cattle and house sparrows on two Czech dairy farmsRes Vet Sci 85491494 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  48. Dolejská M., Bierosová B., Kohoutová L., Literák I., Cízek A. (2009). Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Escherichia coli isolates with integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamases in surface water and sympatric black-headed gullsJ Appl Microbiol 10619411950 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  49. Domingues S., da Silva G.J., Nielsen K.M. (2012a). Integrons: vehicles and pathways for horizontal dissemination in bacteriaMob Genet Elements 2211223 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  50. Domingues S., Nielsen K.M., da Silva G.J. (2012b). Various pathways leading to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by natural transformationMob Genet Elements 2257260 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  51. Domingues S., Harms K., Fricke W.F., Johnsen P.J., da Silva G.J., Nielsen K.M. (2012c). Natural transformation facilitates transfer of transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between bacterial speciesPLoS Pathog 8e1002837 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  52. Dotto G., Giacomelli M., Grilli G., Ferrazzi V., Carattoli A., Fortini D., Piccirillo A. (2014). High prevalence of oqxAB in Escherichia coli isolates from domestic and wild lagomorphs in ItalyMicrob Drug Resist 20118123 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  53. Doublet B., Butaye P., Imberechts H., Boyd D., Mulvey M.R., Chaslus-Dancla E., Cloeckaert A. (2004). Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance gene clusters in Salmonella enterica serovar Agona isolated in Belgium in 1992 to 2002Antimicrob Agents Chemother 4825102517 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  54. Du X., Shen Z., Wu B., Xia S., Shen J. (2005). Characterization of class 1 integrons-mediated antibiotic resistance among calf pathogenic Escherichia coli FEMS Microbiol Lett 245295298 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  55. Egorova S., Kaftyreva L., Grimont P.A., Weill F.X. (2007). Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates in adults in Saint Petersburg, Russia (2002–2005)Microb Drug Resist 13102107 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  56. El-Najjar N.G., Farah M.J., Hashwa F.A., Tokajian S.T. (2010). Antibiotic resistance patterns and sequencing of class I integron from uropathogenic Escherichia coli in LebanonLett Appl Microbiol 51456461 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  57. Falbo V., Carattoli A., Tosini F., Pezzella C., Dionisi A.M., Luzzi I. (1999). Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and ItalyAntimicrob Agents Chemother 43693696[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  58. Falcone M., Perilli M., Mezzatesta M.L., Mancini C., Amicosante G., Stefani S., Venditti M. (2010). Prolonged bacteraemia caused by VIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis: first report from ItalyClin Microbiol Infect 16179181 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  59. Feng J.L., Yan H., Chowdhury N., Neogi S.B., Yamasaki S., Shi L., Hu J., Chen Q. (2011). Identification and characterization of integron-associated antibiotic resistant Laribacter hongkongensis isolated from aquatic products in ChinaInt J Food Microbiol 144337341 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  60. Ferreira da Silva M., Vaz-Moreira I., Gonzalez-Pajuelo M., Nunes O.C., Manaia C.M. (2007). Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from an urban wastewater treatment plantFEMS Microbiol Ecol 60166176 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  61. Fluit A.C., Schmitz F.J. (1999). Class 1 integrons, gene cassettes, mobility, and epidemiologyEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18761770 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  62. Forsberg K.J., Reyes A., Wang B., Selleck E.M., Sommer M.O., Dantas G. (2012). The shared antibiotic resistome of soil bacteria and human pathogensScience 33711071111 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  63. Frank T., Gautier V., Talarmin A., Bercion R., Arlet G. (2007). Characterization of sulphonamide resistance genes and class 1 integron gene cassettes in Enterobacteriaceae, Central African Republic (CAR)J Antimicrob Chemother 59742745 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  64. Gassama A., Aïdara-Kane A., Chainier D., Denis F., Ploy M.C. (2004). Integron-associated antibiotic resistance in enteroaggregative and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli Microb Drug Resist 102730 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  65. Gillings M.R. (2013). Evolutionary consequences of antibiotic use for the resistome, mobilome and microbial pangenomeFront Microbiol 44 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  66. Gillings M., Boucher Y., Labbate M., Holmes A., Krishnan S., Holley M., Stokes H.W. (2008). The evolution of class 1 integrons and the rise of antibiotic resistanceJ Bacteriol 19050955100 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  67. Gionechetti F., Zucca P., Gombac F., Monti-Bragadin C., Lagatolla C., Tonin E., Edalucci E., Vitali L.A., Dolzani L. (2008). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Mediterranean herring gulls (Larus cachinnans)Microb Drug Resist 149399 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  68. Gombac F., Riccio M.L., Rossolini G.M., Lagatolla C., Tonin E., Monti-Bragadin C., Lavenia A., Dolzani L. (2002). Molecular characterization of integrons in epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Italian hospitals reveals a limited diversity of gene cassette arraysAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4636653668 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  69. Gonçalves A., Igrejas G., Radhouani H., Santos T., Monteiro R., Pacheco R., Alcaide E., Zorrilla I., Serra R., other authors. (2013). Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)Sci Total Environ 456-457115119 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  70. Grape M., Farra A., Kronvall G., Sundström L. (2005). Integrons and gene cassettes in clinical isolates of co-trimoxazole-resistant Gram-negative bacteriaClin Microbiol Infect 11185192 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  71. Gruteke P., Goessens W., Van Gils J., Peerbooms P., Lemmens-Den Toom N., Van Santen-Verheuvel M., Van Belkum A., Verbrugh H. (2003). Patterns of resistance associated with integrons, the extended-spectrum β-lactamase SHV-5 gene, and a multidrug efflux pump of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing a nosocomial outbreakJ Clin Microbiol 4111611166 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  72. Gu B., Tong M., Zhao W., Liu G., Ning M., Pan S., Zhao W. (2007). Prevalence and characterization of class I integrons among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from patients in NanjingChina. J Clin Microbiol 45241243 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  73. Guerin E., Cambray G., Sanchez-Alberola N., Campoy S., Erill I., Da Re S., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Barbé J., Ploy M.C., Mazel D. (2009). The SOS response controls integron recombinationScience 3241034 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  74. Guerra B., Soto S., Cal S., Mendoza M.C. (2000). Antimicrobial resistance and spread of class 1 integrons among Salmonella serotypesAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4421662169 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  75. Guerra B., Junker E., Schroeter A., Helmuth R., Guth B.E., Beutin L. (2006). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O111 isolatesJ Antimicrob Chemother 5712101214 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  76. Hall R.M., Collis C.M. (1995). Mobile gene cassettes and integrons: capture and spread of genes by site-specific recombinationMol Microbiol 15593600 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  77. Hall R.M., Collis C.M. (1998). Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria: the role of gene cassettes and integronsDrug Resist Updat 1109119 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  78. Hall R.M., Stokes H.W. (1990). The structure of a partial duplication in the integron of plasmid pDGO100Plasmid 237679 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  79. Han N., Sheng D., Xu H. (2012). Role of Escherichia coli strain subgroups, integrons, and integron-associated gene cassettes in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments of Jinan, ChinaWater Sci Technol 6623852392 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  80. Harrison E.M., Paterson G.K., Holden M.T., Larsen J., Stegger M., Larsen A.R., Petersen A., Skov R.L., Christensen J.M., other authors. (2013). Whole genome sequencing identifies zoonotic transmission of MRSA isolates with the novel mecA homologue mecC EMBO Mol Med 5509515 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  81. Havlickova H., Hradecka H., Bernardyova I., Rychlik I. (2009). Distribution of integrons and SGI1 among antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates of animal originVet Microbiol 133193198 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  82. Hedges R.W., Datta N., Fleming M.P. (1972). R factors conferring resistance to trimethoprim but not sulphonamidesJ Gen Microbiol 73573575 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  83. Heikkilä E., Skurnik M., Sundström L., Huovinen P. (1993). A novel dihydrofolate reductase cassette inserted in an integron borne on a Tn21-like elementAntimicrob Agents Chemother 3712971304 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  84. Heir E., Lindstedt B.A., Leegaard T.M., Gjernes E., Kapperud G. (2004). Prevalence and characterization of integrons in blood culture Enterobacteriaceae and gastrointestinal Escherichia coli in Norway and reporting of a novel class 1 integron-located lincosamide resistance geneAnn Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 312 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  85. Heuer H., Smalla K. (2007). Manure and sulfadiazine synergistically increased bacterial antibiotic resistance in soil over at least two monthsEnviron Microbiol 9657666 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  86. Heuer H., Binh C.T., Jechalke S., Kopmann C., Zimmerling U., Krögerrecklenfort E., Ledger T., González B., Top E., Smalla K. (2012). IncP-1ε plasmids are important vectors of antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural systems: diversification driven by class 1 integron gene cassettesFront Microbiol 32 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  87. Hocquet D., Llanes C., Thouverez M., Kulasekara H.D., Bertrand X., Plésiat P., Mazel D., Miller S.I. (2012). Evidence for induction of integron-based antibiotic resistance by the SOS response in a clinical settingPLoS Pathog 8e1002778 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  88. Holt K.E., Thomson N.R., Wain J., Phan M.D., Nair S., Hasan R., Bhutta Z.A., Quail M.A., Norbertczak H., other authors. (2007). Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A harbors IncHI1 plasmids similar to those found in serovar typhiJ Bacteriol 18942574264 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  89. Hsu S.C., Chiu T.H., Pang J.C., Hsuan-Yuan C.H., Chang G.N., Tsen H.Y. (2006). Characterisation of antimicrobial resistance patterns and class 1 integrons among Escherichia coli Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated from humans and swine in TaiwanInt J Antimicrob Agents 27383391 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  90. Hu L.F., Chang X., Ye Y., Wang Z.X., Shao Y.B., Shi W., Li X., Li J.B. (2011). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole mediated by acquisition of sul dfrA genes in a plasmid-mediated class 1 integronInt J Antimicrob Agents 37230234 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  91. Huovinen P., Jacoby G.A. (1991). Sequence of the PSE-1 β-lactamase geneAntimicrob Agents Chemother 3524282430 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  92. Hussein A.I., Ahmed A.M., Sato M., Shimamoto T. (2009). Characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria from Palestinian hospitalsMicrobiol Immunol 53595602 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  93. Huys G., Cnockaert M., Nemec A., Dijkshoorn L., Brisse S., Vaneechoutte M., Swings J. (2005). Repetitive-DNA-element PCR fingerprinting and antibiotic resistance of pan-European multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone III strainsJ Med Microbiol 54851856 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  94. Ibrahim M.E., Magzoub M.A., Bilal N.E., Hamid M.E. (2013). Distribution of Class I integrons and their effect on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from SudanSaudi Med J 34240247[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  95. Iversen J., Sandvang D., Srijan A., Cam P.D., Dalsgaard A. (2003). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance, plasmids, and gene cassettes in Shigella spp. from patients in VietnamMicrob Drug Resist 9(Suppl 1), S17S24 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  96. Jones L.A., McIver C.J., Kim M.J., Rawlinson W.D., White P.A. (2005). The aadB gene cassette is associated with bla SHV genes in Klebsiella species producing extended-spectrum β-lactamasesAntimicrob Agents Chemother 49794797 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  97. Jové T., Da Re S., Denis F., Mazel D., Ploy M.C. (2010). Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integronsPLoS Genet 6e1000793 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  98. Kadlec K., Schwarz S. (2008). Analysis and distribution of class 1 and class 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes among Escherichia coli isolates from swine, horses, cats and dogs collected in the BfT-GermVet monitoring studyJ Antimicrob Chemother 62469473 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  99. Kadlec K., von Czapiewski E., Kaspar H., Wallmann J., Michael G.B., Steinacker U., Schwarz S. (2011). Molecular basis of sulfonamide and trimethoprim resistance in fish-pathogenic Aeromonas isolatesAppl Environ Microbiol 7771477150 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  100. Kang H.Y., Jeong Y.S., Oh J.Y., Tae S.H., Choi C.H., Moon D.C., Lee W.K., Lee Y.C., Seol S.Y., other authors. (2005). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from humans and animals in KoreaJ Antimicrob Chemother 55639644 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  101. Kang M.S., Kim A., Jung B.Y., Her M., Jeong W., Cho Y.M., Oh J.Y., Lee Y.J., Kwon J.H., Kwon Y.K. (2010). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance of recent Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolates from chickens in South KoreaAvian Pathol 39201205 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  102. Kansakar P., Dorji D., Chongtrakool P., Mingmongkolchai S., Mokmake B., Dubbs P. (2011). Local dissemination of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clones in a Thai hospitalMicrob Drug Resist 17109119 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  103. Karczmarczyk M., Abbott Y., Walsh C., Leonard N., Fanning S. (2011). Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from animals presenting at a university veterinary hospitalAppl Environ Microbiol 7771047112 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  104. Kazama H., Kizu K., Iwasaki M., Hamashima H., Sasatsu M., Arai T. (1995). Isolation and structure of a new integron that includes a streptomycin resistance gene from the R plasmid of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FEMS Microbiol Lett 134137141 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  105. Khan A.A., Cheng C.M., Van K.T., West C.S., Nawaz M.S., Khan S.A. (2006). Characterization of class 1 integron resistance gene cassettes in Salmonella enterica serovars Oslo and Bareily from imported seafoodJ Antimicrob Chemother 5813081310 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  106. Khemtong S., Chuanchuen R. (2008). Class 1 integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 among Salmonella enterica isolated from poultry and swineMicrob Drug Resist 146570 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  107. Kiiru J., Butaye P., Goddeeris B.M., Kariuki S. (2013). Analysis for prevalence and physical linkages amongst integrons, ISEcp1, ISCR1, Tn21 and Tn7 encountered in Escherichia coli strains from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Kenya during a 19-year period (1992–2011)BMC Microbiol 13109 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  108. Kikuvi G.M., Schwarz S., Ombui J.N., Mitema E.S., Kehrenberg C. (2007). Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in KenyaMicrob Drug Resist 136268 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  109. Kim S., Kim S.H., Kim J., Shin J.H., Lee B.K., Park M.S. (2011). Occurrence and distribution of various genetic structures of class 1 and class 2 integrons in Salmonella enterica isolates from foodborne disease patients in Korea for 16 yearsFoodborne Pathog Dis 8319324 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  110. Koczura R., Mokracka J., Krzymińska S., Kaznowski A. (2011). Virulence properties and integron-associated antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella mobilis strains isolated from clinical specimensJ Med Microbiol 60281288 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  111. Koh T.H., Sng L.H., Wang G.C., Hsu L.Y., Zhao Y. (2007). IMP-4 and OXA β-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii from SingaporeJ Antimicrob Chemother 59627632 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  112. Kor S.B., Choo Q.C., Chew C.H. (2013). New integron gene arrays from multiresistant clinical isolates of members of the Enterobacteriaceae Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitals in MalaysiaJ Med Microbiol 62412420 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  113. Kouda S., Ohara M., Onodera M., Fujiue Y., Sasaki M., Kohara T., Kashiyama S., Hayashida S., Harino T., other authors. (2009). Increased prevalence and clonal dissemination of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the bla IMP-1 gene cassette in HiroshimaJ Antimicrob Chemother 644651 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  114. Krauland M.G., Marsh J.W., Paterson D.L., Harrison L.H. (2009). Integron-mediated multidrug resistance in a global collection of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolatesEmerg Infect Dis 15388396 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  115. Kumai Y., Suzuki Y., Tanaka Y., Shima K., Bhadra R.K., Yamasaki S., Kuroda K., Endo G. (2005). Characterization of multidrug-resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from swine from an abattoir in Osaka, JapanEpidemiol Infect 1335970 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  116. L'Abée-Lund T.M., Sorum H. (2001). Class 1 integrons mediate antibiotic resistance in the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida worldwideMicrob Drug Resist 7263272 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  117. Labar A.S., Millman J.S., Ruebush E., Opintan J.A., Bishar R.A., Aboderin A.O., Newman M.J., Lamikanra A., Okeke I.N. (2012). Regional dissemination of a trimethoprim-resistance gene cassette via a successful transposable elementPLoS One 7e38142 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  118. Lapierre L., Cornejo J., Borie C., Toro C., San Martín B. (2008). Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance genes linked to class 1 and class 2 integrons in commensal strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and swineMicrob Drug Resist 14265272 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  119. Lay K.K., Koowattananukul C., Chansong N., Chuanchuen R. (2012). Antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and phylogenetic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy swineFoodborne Pathog Dis 99921001 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  120. Lee K.E., Lee Y. (2007). Isolation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 from swine in KoreaJ Microbiol 45590592[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  121. Lee K., Yong D., Yum J.H., Lim Y.S., Kim H.S., Lee B.K., Chong Y. (2004). Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in KoreaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4841304135 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  122. Lee M.F., Peng C.F., Lin Y.H., Lin S.R., Chen Y.H. (2008). Molecular diversity of class 1 integrons in human isolates of Aeromonas spp. from southern TaiwanJpn J Infect Dis 61343349[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  123. Lee M.F., Chen Y.H., Peng C.F. (2009). Molecular characterisation of class 1 integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis isolates from southern TaiwanInt J Antimicrob Agents 33216222 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  124. Lévesque R.C., Jacoby G.A. (1988). Molecular structure and interrelationships of multiresistance β-lactamase transposonsPlasmid 192129 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  125. Lévesque C., Piché L., Larose C., Roy P.H. (1995). PCR mapping of integrons reveals several novel combinations of resistance genesAntimicrob Agents Chemother 39185191 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  126. Li Q., Skyberg J.A., Fakhr M.K., Sherwood J.S., Nolan L.K., Logue C.M. (2006). Antimicrobial susceptibility and characterization of Salmonella isolates from processed bison carcassesAppl Environ Microbiol 7230463049 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  127. Li D., Yang M., Hu J., Zhang J., Liu R., Gu X., Zhang Y., Wang Z. (2009). Antibiotic-resistance profile in environmental bacteria isolated from penicillin production wastewater treatment plant and the receiving riverEnviron Microbiol 1115061517 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  128. Li D., Yu T., Zhang Y., Yang M., Li Z., Liu M., Qi R. (2010). Antibiotic resistance characteristics of environmental bacteria from an oxytetracycline production wastewater treatment plant and the receiving riverAppl Environ Microbiol 7634443451 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  129. Libisch B., Balogh B., Füzi M. (2009). Identification of two multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clonal lineages with a countrywide distribution in HungaryCurr Microbiol 58111116 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  130. Liebert C.A., Hall R.M., Summers A.O. (1999). Transposon Tn21, flagship of the floating genomeMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev 63507522[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  131. Lindstedt B.A., Heir E., Nygård I., Kapperud G. (2003). Characterization of class I integrons in clinical strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis from Norwegian hospitalsJ Med Microbiol 52141149 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  132. Lu L., Dai L., Wang Y., Wu C., Chen X., Li L., Qi Y., Xia L., Shen J. (2010). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and integrons among Escherichia coli isolated from animal farms in Eastern ChinaActa Trop 1132025 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  133. Lukkana M., Wongtavatchai J., Chuanchuen R. (2012). Class 1 integrons in Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica)J Vet Med Sci 74435440 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  134. Machado E., Coque T.M., Cantón R., Sousa J.C., Peixe L. (2008). Antibiotic resistance integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from chickens and swine in PortugalJ Antimicrob Chemother 62296302 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  135. Mahrouki S., Belhadj O., Chihi H., Mohamed B.M., Celenza G., Amicosante G., Perilli M. (2012). Chromosomal bla CTX-M-15 associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, TunisiaJ Med Microbiol 6112861289 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  136. Majtan T., Majtanova L., Timko J., Majtan V. (2007). Oligonucleotide microarray for molecular characterization and genotyping of Salmonella spp. strainsJ Antimicrob Chemother 60937946 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  137. Matthew M., Sykes R.B. (1977). Properties of the β-lactamase specified by the Pseudomonas plasmid RPL11J Bacteriol 132341345[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  138. Mazel D. (2006). Integrons: agents of bacterial evolutionNat Rev Microbiol 4608620101038/nrmicro1462[PubMed].[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  139. Mokracka J., Koczura R., Pawlowski K., Kaznowski A. (2011). Resistance patterns and integron cassette arrays of Enterobacter cloacae complex strains of human originJ Med Microbiol 60737743 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  140. Mokracka J., Koczura R., Kaznowski A. (2012). Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae with class 1 and class 2 integrons in a municipal wastewater treatment plantWater Res 4633533363 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  141. Molla B., Miko A., Pries K., Hildebrandt G., Kleer J., Schroeter A., Helmuth R. (2007). Class 1 integrons and resistance gene cassettes among multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from slaughter animals and foods of animal origin in EthiopiaActa Trop 103142149 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  142. Morabito S., Tozzoli R., Caprioli A., Karch H., Carattoli A. (2002). Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Microb Drug Resist 88591 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  143. Moura A., Henriques I., Ribeiro R., Correia A. (2007). Prevalence and characterization of integrons from bacteria isolated from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plantJ Antimicrob Chemother 6012431250 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  144. Moura A., Soares M., Pereira C., Leitão N., Henriques I., Correia A. (2009). integrall: a database and search engine for integrons, integrases and gene cassettesBioinformatics 2510961098 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  145. Moura A., Pereira C., Henriques I., Correia A. (2012). Novel gene cassettes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from urban wastewatersRes Microbiol 16392100 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  146. Mukherjee S., Chakraborty R. (2006). Incidence of class 1 integrons in multiple antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative copiotrophic bacteria from the River Torsa in IndiaRes Microbiol 157220226 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  147. Murphy B.P., O'Mahony R., Buckley J.F., Shine P., Boyd E.F., Gilroy D., Fanning S. (2007). Investigation of a global collection of nontyphoidal Salmonella of various serotypes cultured between 1953 and 2004 for the presence of class 1 integronsFEMS Microbiol Lett 266170176 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  148. Najibi S., Bakhshi B., Fallahzad S., Pourshafie M.R., Katouli M., Sattari M., Alebouyeh M., Tajbakhsh M. (2012). Distribution of class 1 integrons among enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Can J Microbiol 58637643 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  149. Nakaya R., Nakamura A., Murata Y. (1960). Resistance transfer agents in Shigella Biochem Biophys Res Commun 3654659 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  150. Nardelli M., Scalzo P.M., Ramírez M.S., Quiroga M.P., Cassini M.H., Centrón D. (2012). Class 1 integrons in environments with different degrees of urbanizationPLoS One 7e39223 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  151. Navia M.M., Ruiz J., Vila J. (2004). Molecular characterization of the integrons in Shigella strains isolated from patients with traveler's diarrheaDiagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48175179 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  152. Ndi O.L., Barton M.D. (2011). Incidence of class 1 integron and other antibiotic resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. from rainbow trout farms in AustraliaJ Fish Dis 34589599 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  153. Nemec A., Dolzani L., Brisse S., van den Broek P., Dijkshoorn L. (2004). Diversity of aminoglycoside-resistance genes and their association with class 1 integrons among strains of pan-European Acinetobacter baumannii clonesJ Med Microbiol 5312331240 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  154. Nesvera J., Hochmannová J., Pátek M. (1998). An integron of class 1 is present on the plasmid pCG4 from Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum FEMS Microbiol Lett 169391395 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  155. Ng L.K., Mulvey M.R., Martin I., Peters G.A., Johnson W. (1999). Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Canadian isolates of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104Antimicrob Agents Chemother 4330183021[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  156. Nógrády N., Gadó I., Tóth A., Pászti J. (2005). Antibiotic resistance and class 1 integron patterns of non-typhoidal human Salmonella serotypes isolated in Hungary in 2002 and 2003Int J Antimicrob Agents 26126132 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  157. Nógrády N., Király M., Borbás K., Tóth A., Pászti J., Tóth I. (2013). Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characteristics of integron-carrier shigellae isolated in Hungary; 1998–2008J Med Microbiol 6215451551.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  158. O'Halloran F., Lucey B., Cryan B., Buckley T., Fanning S. (2004). Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons from Irish thermophilic Campylobacter sppJ Antimicrob Chemother 53952957 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  159. Ozgumus O.B., Celik-Sevim E., Alpay-Karaoglu S., Sandalli C., Sevim A. (2007). Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from tap and spring waters in a coastal region in TurkeyJ Microbiol 45379387[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  160. Ozgumus O.B., Sandalli C., Sevim A., Celik-Sevim E., Sivri N. (2009). Class 1 and class 2 integrons and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from ten rivers in northern TurkeyJ Microbiol 471927 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  161. Pallecchi L., Lucchetti C., Bartoloni A., Bartalesi F., Mantella A., Gamboa H., Carattoli A., Paradisi F., Rossolini G.M. (2007). Population structure and resistance genes in antibiotic-resistant bacteria from a remote community with minimal antibiotic exposureAntimicrob Agents Chemother 5111791184 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  162. Pan J.C., Ye R., Meng D.M., Zhang W., Wang H.Q., Liu K.Z. (2006). Molecular characteristics of class 1 and class 2 integrons and their relationships to antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei Shigella flexneri J Antimicrob Chemother 58288296 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  163. Partridge S.R., Hall R.M. (2005). [View Article][PubMed] Correctly identifying the streptothricin resistance gene cassetteJ Clin Microbiol 4342984300. [Google Scholar]
  164. Partridge S.R., Brown H.J., Stokes H.W., Hall R.M. (2001). Transposons Tn1696 and Tn21 and their integrons In4 and In2 have independent originsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4512631270 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  165. Partridge S.R., Brown H.J., Hall R.M. (2002). Characterization and movement of the class 1 integron known as Tn2521 and Tn1405 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 4612881294 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  166. Partridge S.R., Tsafnat G., Coiera E., Iredell J.R. (2009). Gene cassettes and cassette arrays in mobile resistance integronsFEMS Microbiol Rev 33757784 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  167. Pazhani G.P., Chakraborty S., Fujihara K., Yamasaki S., Ghosh A., Nair G.B., Ramamurthy T. (2011). QRDR mutations, efflux system & antimicrobial resistance genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from an outbreak of diarrhoea in Ahmedabad, IndiaIndian J Med Res 134214223[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  168. Peirano G., Agersø Y., Aarestrup F.M., dos Prazeres Rodrigues D. (2006). [View Article][PubMed] Occurrence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes among Salmonella enterica from BrazilJ Antimicrob Chemother 305–309. [Google Scholar]
  169. Pellegrini C., Mercuri P.S., Celenza G., Galleni M., Segatore B., Sacchetti E., Volpe R., Amicosante G., Perilli M. (2009). Identification of bla IMP-22 in Pseudomonas spp. in urban wastewater and nosocomial environments: biochemical characterization of a new IMP metallo-enzyme variant and its genetic locationJ Antimicrob Chemother 63901908 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  170. Peng C.F., Lee M.F., Fu H.T., Chen Y.J., Hsu H.J. (2007). Characterization of class 1 integrons and antimicrobial resistance in CTX-M-3-producing Serratia marcescens isolates from southern TaiwanJpn J Infect Dis 60250256[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  171. Pepperell C., Kus J.V., Gardam M.A., Humar A., Burrows L.L. (2002). Low-virulence Citrobacter species encode resistance to multiple antimicrobialsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4635553560 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  172. Pérez-Moreno M.O., Picó-Plana E., de Toro M., Grande-Armas J., Quiles-Fortuny V., Pons M.J., Gomes C., Sáenz Y., Torres C., Ruiz J.β-L. (2013). Lactamases, transferable quinolone resistance determinants, and class 1 integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance in human clinical Salmonella enterica isolates of non-Typhimurium serotypesInt J Med Microbiol 3032531 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  173. Pérez-Valdespino A., Fernández-Rendón E., Curiel-Quesada E. (2009). Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in MexicoJ Basic Microbiol 49572578 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  174. Peters E.D., Leverstein-van Hall M.A., Box A.T., Verhoef J., Fluit A.C. (2001). Novel gene cassettes and integronsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4529612964 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  175. Petrova M., Gorlenko Z., Mindlin S. (2011). Tn5045, a novel integron-containing antibiotic and chromate resistance transposon isolated from a permafrost bacteriumRes Microbiol 162337345 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  176. Plante I., Centrón D., Roy P.H. (2003). Direct sequencing and PCR mapping of integrons reveals multiple class 1 integrons in the multiresistant strain Enterobacter cloacae SCH88040794FEMS Microbiol Lett 2215962 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  177. Ploy M.C., Chainier D., Tran Thi N.H., Poilane I., Cruaud P., Denis F., Collignon A., Lambert T. (2003). Integron-associated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi from AsiaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4714271429 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  178. Poirel L., Guibert M., Bellais S., Naas T., Nordmann P. (1999). Integron- and carbenicillinase-mediated reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 from French patientsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4310981104[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  179. Povilonis J., Šeputiene˙ V., Ružauskas M., Šiugždiniene˙ R., Virgailis M., Pavilonis A., Sužiede˙liene˙ E. (2010). Transferable class 1 and 2 integrons in Escherichia coli Salmonella enterica isolates of human and animal origin in LithuaniaFoodborne Pathog Dis 711851192 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  180. Power M.L., Emery S., Gillings M.R. (2013). Into the wild: dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants via a species recovery programPLoS One 8e63017 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  181. Rajpara N., Patel A., Tiwari N., Bahuguna J., Antony A., Choudhury I., Ghosh A., Jain R., Ghosh A., Bhardwaj A.K. (2009). Mechanism of drug resistance in a clinical isolate of Vibrio fluvialis: involvement of multiple plasmids and integronsInt J Antimicrob Agents 34220225 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  182. Rakotonirina H.C., Garin B., Randrianirina F., Richard V., Talarmin A., Arlet G. (2013). Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Antananarivo, MadagascarBMC Microbiol 1385 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  183. Ramirez M.S., Tolmasky M.E. (2010). Aminoglycoside modifying enzymesDrug Resist Updat 13151171 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  184. Ranjbar R., Giammanco G.M., Farshad S., Owlia P., Aleo A., Mammina C. (2011). Serotypes, antibiotic resistance, and class 1 integrons in Salmonella isolates from pediatric cases of enteritis in Tehran, IranFoodborne Pathog Dis 8547553 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  185. Recchia G.D., Hall R.M. (1995). Gene cassettes: a new class of mobile elementMicrobiology 14130153027 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  186. Ridley A., Threlfall E.J. (1998). Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance genes in multiresistant epidemic Salmonella typhimurium DT 104Microb Drug Resist 4113118 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  187. Roberts M.C., Schwarz S., Aarts H.J. (2012). Erratum: Acquired antibiotic resistance genes: an overviewFront Microbiol 3384 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  188. Rodríguez I., Martín M.C., Mendoza M.C., Rodicio M.R. (2006). Class 1 and class 2 integrons in non-prevalent serovars of Salmonella enterica: structure and association with transposons and plasmidsJ Antimicrob Chemother 5811241132 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  189. Rodríguez I., Barownick W., Helmuth R., Mendoza M.C., Rodicio M.R., Schroeter A., Guerra B. (2009). Extended-spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β-lactamases in ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from food and livestock obtained in Germany during 2003–07J Antimicrob Chemother 64301309 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  190. Rodríguez M.M., Power P., Sader H., Galleni M., Gutkind G. (2010). Novel chromosome-encoded CTX-M-78 β-lactamase from a Kluyvera georgiana clinical isolate as a putative origin of CTX-M-25 subgroupAntimicrob Agents Chemother 5430703071 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  191. Rosser S.J., Young H.K. (1999). Identification and characterization of class 1 integrons in bacteria from an aquatic environmentJ Antimicrob Chemother 441118 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  192. Rowe-Magnus D.A., Guerout A.M., Ploncard P., Dychinco B., Davies J., Mazel D. (2001). The evolutionary history of chromosomal super-integrons provides an ancestry for multiresistant integronsProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98652657 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  193. Rowe-Magnus D.A., Guerout A.M., Mazel D. (2002). Bacterial resistance evolution by recruitment of super-integron gene cassettesMol Microbiol 4316571669 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  194. Ruiz-Martínez L., López-Jiménez L., Fusté E., Vinuésa T., Martínez J.P., Viñas M. (2011). Class 1 integrons in environmental and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Int J Antimicrob Agents 38398402 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  195. L.L., Fonseca E.L., Pellegrini M., Freitas F., Loureiro E.C., Vicente A.C. (2010). Occurrence and composition of class 1 and class 2 integrons in clinical and environmental O1 and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains from the Brazilian AmazonMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105229232 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  196. Sandalli C., Buruk C.K., Sancaktar M., Ozgumus O.B. (2010). Prevalence of integrons and a new dfrA17 variant in Gram-negative bacilli which cause community-acquired infectionsMicrobiol Immunol 54164169 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  197. Sandvang D. (1999). Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli Antimicrob Agents Chemother 4330363038[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  198. Sandvang D., Aarestrup F.M. (2000). Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance genes and class 1 integrons in porcine and bovine gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli Microb Drug Resist 61927[PubMed].[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  199. Sandvang D., Aarestrup F.M., Jensen L.B. (1998). Characterisation of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in Danish multiresistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104FEMS Microbiol Lett 1603741 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  200. Segal H., Thomas R., Gay Elisha B. (2003). Characterization of class 1 integron resistance gene cassettes and the identification of a novel IS-like element in Acinetobacter baumannii Plasmid 49169178 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  201. Shahcheraghi F., Badmasti F., Feizabadi M.M. (2010). Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons in MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical settings in Iran, TehranFEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 58421425[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  202. Shaw K.J., Rather P.N., Hare R.S., Miller G.H. (1993). Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymesMicrobiol Rev 57138163[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  203. Shi L., Zheng M., Xiao Z., Asakura M., Su J., Li L., Yamasaki S. (2006a). Unnoticed spread of class 1 integrons in gram-positive clinical strains isolated in Guangzhou, ChinaMicrobiol Immunol 50463467 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  204. Shi L., Fujihara K., Sato T., Ito H., Garg P., Chakrabarty R., Ramamurthy T., Nair G.B., Takeda Y., Yamasaki S. (2006b). Distribution and characterization of integrons in various serogroups of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients between 1992 and 2000 in Kolkata, IndiaJ Med Microbiol 55575583 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  205. Shin G.W., You M.J., Lee H.S., Lee C.S. (2012). Catheter-related bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant Leclercia adecarboxylata in a patient with breast cancerJ Clin Microbiol 5031293132 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  206. Sidjabat H.E., Townsend K.M., Lorentzen M., Gobius K.S., Fegan N., Chin J.J., Bettelheim K.A., Hanson N.D., Bensink J.C., Trott D.J. (2006). Emergence and spread of two distinct clonal groups of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in a veterinary teaching hospital in AustraliaJ Med Microbiol 5511251134 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  207. Sivri N., Sandalli C., Ozgumus O.B., Colakoglu F., Dogan D. (2012). Antibiotic resistance profiles of enteric bacteria isolated from Kucukcekmece Lagoon (Istanbul–Turkey)Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 12699707 [View Article]. [Google Scholar]
  208. Solberg O.D., Ajiboye R.M., Riley L.W. (2006). Origin of class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes in a population-based sample of uropathogenic Escherichia coli J Clin Microbiol 4413471351 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  209. Soufi L., Sáenz Y., de Toro M., Abbassi M.S., Rojo-Bezares B., Vinué L., Bouchami O., Touati A., Ben Hassen A., other authors. (2012). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella enterica recovered from poultry meat in Tunisia and identification of new genetic traitsVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 121016 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  210. Sow A.G., Wane A.A., Diallo M.H., Boye C.S., Aïdara-Kane A. (2007). Genotypic characterization of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enteritidis isolates in Dakar, SenegalJ Infect Dev Ctries 1284288[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  211. Srinivasan V.B., Virk R.K., Kaundal A., Chakraborty R., Datta B., Ramamurthy T., Mukhopadhyay A.K., Ghosh A. (2006). Mechanism of drug resistance in clonally related clinical isolates of Vibrio fluvialis isolated in Kolkata, IndiaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 5024282432 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  212. Srinivasan V., Nam H.M., Sawant A.A., Headrick S.I., Nguyen L.T., Oliver S.P. (2008). Distribution of tetracycline and streptomycin resistance genes and class 1 integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dairy and nondairy farm soilsMicrob Ecol 55184193 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  213. Stalder T., Barraud O., Jové T., Casellas M., Gaschet M., Dagot C., Ploy M.C. (2014). Quantitative and qualitative impact of hospital effluent on dissemination of the integron poolISME J 8768777 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  214. Starikova I., Harms K., Haugen P., Lunde T.T.M., Primicerio R., Samuelsen Ø., Nielsen K.M., Johnsen P.J. (2012). A trade-off between the fitness cost of functional integrases and long-term stability of integronsPLoS Pathog 8e1003043 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  215. Stokes H.W., Gillings M.R. (2011). Gene flow, mobile genetic elements and the recruitment of antibiotic resistance genes into Gram-negative pathogensFEMS Microbiol Rev 35790819 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  216. Stokes H.W., Hall R.M. (1989). A novel family of potentially mobile DNA elements encoding site-specific gene-integration functions: integronsMol Microbiol 316691683 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  217. Stokes H.W., Nesbø C.L., Holley M., Bahl M.I., Gillings M.R., Boucher Y. (2006). Class 1 integrons potentially predating the association with Tn402-like transposition genes are present in a sediment microbial communityJ Bacteriol 18857225730 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  218. Su H.C., Ying G.G., Tao R., Zhang R.Q., Fogarty L.R., Kolpin D.W. (2011). Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistance genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in South ChinaJ Environ Monit 1332293236 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  219. Su H.C., Ying G.G., Tao R., Zhang R.Q., Zhao J.L., Liu Y.S. (2012). Class 1 and 2 integrons, sul resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Dongjiang River, South ChinaEnviron Pollut 1694249 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  220. Sun N., Liu J.H., Yang F., Lin D.C., Li G.H., Chen Z.L., Zeng Z.L. (2012). Molecular characterization of the antimicrobial resistance of Riemerella anatipestifer isolated from ducksVet Microbiol 158376383 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  221. Sunde M. (2005). Prevalence and characterization of class 1 and class 2 integrons in Escherichia coli isolated from meat and meat products of Norwegian originJ Antimicrob Chemother 5610191024 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  222. Sundström L., Sköld O. (1990). The dhfrI trimethoprim resistance gene of Tn7 can be found at specific sites in other genetic surroundingsAntimicrob Agents Chemother 34642650 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  223. Sundström L., Vinayagamoorthy T., Sköld O. (1987). Novel type of plasmid-borne resistance to trimethoprimAntimicrob Agents Chemother 316066 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  224. Sundström L., Swedberg G., Sköld O. (1993). Characterization of transposon Tn5086, carrying the site-specifically inserted gene dhfrVII mediating trimethoprim resistanceJ Bacteriol 17517961805[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  225. Tacão M., Moura A., Correia A., Henriques I. (2014). Co-resistance to different classes of antibiotics among ESBL-producers from aquatic systemsWater Res 48100107 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  226. Tamang M.D., Oh J.Y., Seol S.Y., Kang H.Y., Lee J.C., Lee Y.C., Cho D.T., Kim J. (2007). Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi associated with a class 1 integron carrying the dfrA7 gene cassette in NepalInt J Antimicrob Agents 30330335 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  227. Taviani E., Ceccarelli D., Lazaro N., Bani S., Cappuccinelli P., Colwell R.R., Colombo M.M. (2008). Environmental Vibrio spp., isolated in Mozambique, contain a polymorphic group of integrative conjugative elements and class 1 integronsFEMS Microbiol Ecol 644554 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  228. Tennhammar-Ekman B., Sköld O. (1979). Trimethoprim resistance plasmids of different origin encode different drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductasesPlasmid 2334346 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  229. Tennstedt T., Szczepanowski R., Braun S., Pühler A., Schlüter A. (2003). Occurrence of integron-associated resistance gene cassettes located on antibiotic resistance plasmids isolated from a wastewater treatment plantFEMS Microbiol Ecol 45239252 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  230. Thungapathra M., Amita, Sinha K.K., Chaudhuri S.R., Garg P., Ramamurthy T., Nair G.B., Ghosh A. (2002). Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6′)-Ib dfrA5 dfrA12, and ereA2 in class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in IndiaAntimicrob Agents Chemother 4629482955 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  231. Toleman M.A., Bennett P.M., Walsh T.R. (2006a). ISCR elements: novel gene-capturing systems of the 21st century?Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70296316 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  232. Toleman M.A., Bennett P.M., Walsh T.R. (2006b). Common regions e.g. orf513 and antibiotic resistance: IS91-like elements evolving complex class 1 integronsJ Antimicrob Chemother 5816 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  233. Traglia G.M., Almuzara M., Merkier A.K., Adams C., Galanternik L., Vay C., Centrón D., Ramírez M.S. (2012). Achromobacter xylosoxidans: an emerging pathogen carrying different elements involved in horizontal genetic transferCurr Microbiol 65673678 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  234. Tseng S.P., Wang J.T., Liang C.Y., Lee P.S., Chen Y.C., Lu P.L. (2014). First Report of bla IMP-8 in Raoultella planticola Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58593595 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  235. Turton J.F., Kaufmann M.E., Gill M.J., Pike R., Scott P.T., Fishbain J., Craft D., Deye G., Riddell S., other authors. (2006). Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States that were associated with repatriated casualties of the Iraq conflictJ Clin Microbiol 4426302634 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  236. Valenzuela J.K., Thomas L., Partridge S.R., van der Reijden T., Dijkshoorn L., Iredell J. (2007). Horizontal gene transfer in a polyclonal outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii J Clin Microbiol 45453460 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  237. Van T.T., Moutafis G., Tran L.T., Coloe P.J. (2007). Antibiotic resistance in food-borne bacterial contaminants in VietnamAppl Environ Microbiol 7379067911 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  238. van Essen-Zandbergen A., Smith H., Veldman K., Mevius D. (2007). Occurrence and characteristics of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in Escherichia coli Salmonella Campylobacter spp. in the NetherlandsJ Antimicrob Chemother 59746750 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  239. van Hoek A.H., Mevius D., Guerra B., Mullany P., Roberts A.P., Aarts H.J. (2011). Acquired antibiotic resistance genes: an overviewFront Microbiol 2203 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  240. Vinué L., Jové T., Torres C., Ploy M.C. (2011). Diversity of class 1 integron gene cassette Pc promoter variants in clinical Escherichia coli strains and description of a new P2 promoter variantInt J Antimicrob Agents 38526529 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  241. Vo A.T., van Duijkeren E., Fluit A.C., Gaastra W. (2007). A novel Salmonella genomic island 1 and rare integron types in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from horses in The NetherlandsJ Antimicrob Chemother 59594599 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  242. Vo A.T., van Duijkeren E., Gaastra W., Fluit A.C. (2010). Antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, and genomic island 1 in Salmonella isolates from VietnamPLoS One 5e9440 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  243. Waturangi D.E., Suwanto A., Schwarz S., Erdelen W. (2003). Identification of class 1 integrons-associated gene cassettes in Escherichia coli isolated from Varanus spp. in IndonesiaJ Antimicrob Chemother 51175177 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  244. White P.A., McIver C.J., Deng Y., Rawlinson W.D. (2000). Characterisation of two new gene cassettes, aadA5 dfrA17 FEMS Microbiol Lett 182265269 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  245. Wiesner M., Zaidi M.B., Calva E., Fernández-Mora M., Calva J.J., Silva C. (2009). Association of virulence plasmid and antibiotic resistance determinants with chromosomal multilocus genotypes in Mexican Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strainsBMC Microbiol 9131 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  246. Wright M.S., Baker-Austin C., Lindell A.H., Stepanauskas R., Stokes H.W., McArthur J.V. (2008). Influence of industrial contamination on mobile genetic elements: class 1 integron abundance and gene cassette structure in aquatic bacterial communitiesISME J 2417428 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  247. Wu R.B., Alexander T.W., Li J.Q., Munns K., Sharma R., McAllister T.A. (2011). Prevalence and diversity of class 1 integrons and resistance genes in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli originating from beef cattle administered subtherapeutic antimicrobialsJ Appl Microbiol 111511523 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  248. Wu K., Wang F., Sun J., Wang Q., Chen Q., Yu S., Rui Y. (2012). Class 1 integron gene cassettes in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern ChinaInt J Antimicrob Agents 40264267 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  249. Xu Z., Shi L., Zhang C., Zhang L., Li X., Cao Y., Li L., Yamasaki S. (2007). Nosocomial infection caused by class 1 integron-carrying Staphylococcus aureus in a hospital in South ChinaClin Microbiol Infect 13980984 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  250. Xu X., Kong F., Cheng X., Yan B., Du X., Gai J., Ai H., Shi L., Iredell J. (2008a). Integron gene cassettes in Acinetobacter spp. strains from South ChinaInt J Antimicrob Agents 32441445 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  251. Xu Z., Shi L., Alam M.J., Li L., Yamasaki S. (2008b). Integron-bearing methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in South ChinaFEMS Microbiol Lett 278223230 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  252. Xu H., Su Z., Wang S., Dai X., Chen J., Kong F., Li Y., Peng S., Shao Q., other authors. (2009). Four novel resistance integron gene-cassette occurrences in bacterial isolates from Zhenjiang, ChinaCurr Microbiol 59113117 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  253. Xu H., Broersma K., Miao V., Davies J. (2011a). Class 1 and class 2 integrons in multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria isolated from the Salmon River, British ColumbiaCan J Microbiol 57460467 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  254. Xu Z., Li L., Shirtliff M.E., Peters B.M., Li B., Peng Y., Alam M.J., Yamasaki S., Shi L. (2011b). Resistance class 1 integron in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in southern China, 2001–2006Clin Microbiol Infect 17714718 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  255. Yang C.M., Lin M.F., Lin C.H., Huang Y.T., Hsu C.T., Liou M.L. (2009). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and integrons in human fecal Escherichia coli in TaiwanJpn J Infect Dis 62177181[PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  256. Yang B., Qu D., Zhang X., Shen J., Cui S., Shi Y., Xi M., Sheng M., Zhi S., Meng J. (2010a). Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars in retail meats of marketplace in Shaanxi, ChinaInt J Food Microbiol 1416372 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  257. Yang H., Byelashov O.A., Geornaras I., Goodridge L.D., Nightingale K.K., Belk K.E., Smith G.C., Sofos J.N. (2010b). Characterization and transferability of class 1 integrons in commensal bacteria isolated from farm and nonfarm environmentsFoodborne Pathog Dis 714411451 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  258. Yokoyama E., Maruyama S., Kabeya H., Hara S., Sata S., Kuroki T., Yamamoto T. (2007). Prevalence and genetic properties of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium definitive phage type 104 isolated from Rattus norvegicus Rattus rattus house rats in Yokohama City, JapanAppl Environ Microbiol 7326242630 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  259. Yu H.S., Lee J.C., Kang H.Y., Ro D.W., Chung J.Y., Jeong Y.S., Tae S.H., Choi C.H., Lee E.Y., other authors. (2003). Changes in gene cassettes of class 1 integrons among Escherichia coli isolates from urine specimens collected in Korea during the last two decadesJ Clin Microbiol 4154295433 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  260. Zhao S., Datta A.R., Ayers S., Friedman S., Walker R.D., White D.G. (2003). Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from imported foodsInt J Food Microbiol 848792 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  261. Zhao S., Fedorka-Cray P.J., Friedman S., McDermott P.F., Walker R.D., Qaiyumi S., Foley S.L., Hubert S.K., Ayers S., other authors. (2005). Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium of animal origin obtained from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring SystemFoodborne Pathog Dis 2169181 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  262. Zhao S., McDermott P.F., White D.G., Qaiyumi S., Friedman S.L., Abbott J.W., Glenn A., Ayers S.L., Post K.W., Fales W.H. (2007). Characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella recovered from diseased animalsVet Microbiol 123122132[PubMed].[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  263. Zhao K.L., Liu Y., Zhang X.Y., Palahati P., Wang H.N., Yue B.S. (2011). Detection and characterization of antibiotic-resistance genes in Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains from abscesses of forest musk deerJ Med Microbiol 6018201826 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
  264. Zheng F., Lin G., Zhou J., Cao X., Gong X., Wang G., Qiu C. (2012). Discovery and characterization of gene cassettes-containing integrons in clinical strains of Riemerella anatipestifer Vet Microbiol 156434438 [View Article][PubMed]. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000099
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000099
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error