Summary: The cell wall integrity determinants and of were expressed under the control of the tightly regulated promoter p Substitution of the cell-cycle-regulated native promoter with p led to faster cell growth, larger cell volumes, and a twofold reduction of the steady-state mRNA level. In addition, the new pattern of expression of resulted in a dominant flocculation phenotype at all phases of batch growth. By contrast, expression of from p increased the flocculation capacity of cells only at stationary phase. Methionine-mediated repression of either or resulted in enhanced cell clumping. Cells in which both these genes had been replaced with their respective p-regulated cassettes were highly flocculent under both expression and repression conditions. These results suggest that greater exposure of flocculin on the cell surface, caused by either cell wall distortion (through depletion of Pkc1p) or aberrant regulation of mannosylation (through constitutive production of Srb1p), results in an increased flocculation ability.


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