A cluster of anthracycline biosynthetic genes isolated from was expressed in and in A 12 kb DNA fragment cloned from this cluster in pIJ486 caused the production of a novel compound when introduced into The compound is derived from nogalonic acid methyl ester, an early intermediate in nogalamycin biosynthesis. Complementation with the cloned 12 kb fragment of mutants blocked in aclacinomycin biosynthesis caused the production of hybrid anthracyclines. Cloning of the nogalamycin gene cluster should make possible a detailed study of the biosynthesis of this interesting antibiotic, as well as the production of novel anthracyclines of potential value as cytostatic drugs.


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