1887

Abstract

The streptomycin (Sm) producer, N2-3-11, shows medium-independent biphasic kinetics of the vegetative or exponential growth phase (EGP), reflecting an innate clock-like behaviour of growth and differentiation. The growth and development cycle has the following characteristics: (1) after the developmental cycle commences, it cannot be influenced by environmental conditions; (2) the first EGP (decision phase) and its duration seem to be genetically determined, and it is also exhibited in pleiotropic mutants deficient in differentiation and antibiotic production; (3) during this early phase of growth, the decision to produce Sm is established and the fixation of later production and differentiation can only be influenced by effector molecules, e.g. A-factor, during this period; (4) after the onset of the second EGP, the commitment to Sm production cannot be reversed by dilution into fresh medium, nor by effector molecules; (5) the length of time of this effector-insensitive growth phase (second EGP or execution phase) can be extended by dilution into fresh medium; (6) the differentiation cycle of is completed on entering stationary phase. The cells of then return to a decision-making stage and recover sensitivity to effector molecules. Evidence that this type of phasing is valid for the growth and developmental cycles of all streptomycetes is discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-8-1953
1996-08-01
2021-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/142/8/mic-142-8-1953.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-8-1953&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Babcock M.J., Kendrick K.E. 1988; Cloning of DNA involved in sporulation of Streptomyces griseus . J Bacteriol 170:2802–2808
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bascarán V., Sánchez L., Hardisson C., Braña A.F. 1991; Stringent response and initiation of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces clavuligerus . J Gen Microbiol 137:1625–1634
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blanco G., Rodicio M.R., Puglia A.M., Mendez C., Thomson C.J., Salas J.A. 1994; Synthesis of ribosomal proteins during growth of Streptomyces coelicolor . Mol Microbiol 12:375–385
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradford M.M. 1976; A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Demain A.L. 1989; Carbon source regulation of idiolite biosynthesis in actinomycetes. In Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes pp. 127–134. Shapiro S. Edited by Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Distler J., Klier K., Piendl W., Werbitzky O., Böck A., Kresze G., Piepersberg W. 1985; Streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. I. Characterisation of streptomycin-idiotrophic mutants. FEMS Microbiol Lett 30:145–150
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Distler J., Mansouri K., Ebert A., Pissowotzki K., Stockmann M., Piepersberg W. 1987; Gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus: nucleotide sequence of three genes and analysis of transcriptional activity. Nucleic Acids Res 15:8041–8056
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Distler J., Mayer G., Piepersberg W. 1990; Regulation of biosynthesis of streptomycin. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms ̓90 1 pp. 379–392 Heslot H., Davies J., Florent J., Bobichon L., Durand G., Penasse L. Edited by Paris:: Société Française de Microbiologie.;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Distler J., Mansouri K., Mayer G., Stockmann M., Piepersberg W. 1992; Streptomycin production and its regulation. Gene 115:105–111
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ensign J.C. 1988; Physiological regulation of sporulation of Streptomyces griseus . In Biology of Actinomycetes ̓88 pp. 309–315 Okami Y., Beppu T., Ogawara H. Edited by Tokyo:: Japan Scientific Societies Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Eritt I., Gräfe U., Fleck W.F. 1984; Inducers of both cytodifferentiation and anthracycline biosynthesis of Streptomyces griseus and their occurrence in actinomycetes and other microorganisms. Z Allg Mikrobiol 24:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Garrets J.I. 1979; Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and computer analysis of proteins synthesized by clonal cell lines. J Biol Chem 254:6961–6977
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Holt T.G., Chang C., Laurent-Winter C., Murakami T., Garrels J.I., Davies J.E., Thompson C.J. 1992; Global changes in gene expression related to antibiotic synthesis in Streptomyces hygroscopicus . Mol Microbiol 6:969–980
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hong S., Matsumoto A., Horinouchi S., Beppu T. 1993; Effects of protein kinase inhibitors on in vitro protein phosphorylation and cellular differentiation of Streptomyces griseus . Mol Gen Genet 236:347–354
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hopwood D.A., Sherman D.H. 1990; Molecular genetics of polyketides and its comparison to fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet 24:37–66
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Horinouchi S., Beppu T. 1992; Regulation of secondary metabolism and cell differentiation in Streptomyces: A-factor as microbial hormone and the AfsR protein as a complement of a two-component regulatory system. Gene 115:167–172
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Horinouchi S., Beppu T. 1994; A-factor as a microbial hormone that controls cellular differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus . Mol Microbiol 12:859–864
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Khokhlov A.S. 1982; Low molecular weight microbial bioregulators of secondary metabolism. In Overproduction of Microbial Products pp. 97–109 Krumphanzel V., Sikyta B., Vanek Z. Edited by London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Laemmli U.K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martin J.F. 1989; Molecular mechanisms for the control by phosphate of the biosynthesis of antibiotics and secondary metabolites. In Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes pp. 213–237 Shapiro S. Edited by Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ochi K. 1987a; Changes in nucleotide pools during sporulation of Streptomyces griseus in submerged culture. J Gen Microbiol 133:2787–2795
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ochi K. 1987b; Metabolic initiation of differentiation and secondary metabolism by Streptomyces griseus: significance of the stringent response (ppGpp) and GTP content in relation to A-factor. J Bacteriol 169:3608–3616
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Penyige A., Vargha G., Ensign J.C., Barabás G. 1992; The possible role of ADP ribosylation in physiological regulation of sporulation in Streptomyces griseus . Gene 115:181–185
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Piepersberg W. 1995; Streptomycin and related aminoglycosides. In Biochemistry and Genetics of Antibiotic Production pp. 531–570 Vining L.C., Stuttard C. Edited by Newton, MA:: Butterworth-Heinemann.;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ragan C.M., Vining L.C. 1978; Intracellular cyclic adenosine 3̓,5̓-monophosphate levels and streptomycin production in cultures of Streptomyces griseus . Can J Microbiol 24:1012–1015
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Retzlaff L., Distler J. 1995; The regulator of streptomycin gene expression, StrR, of Streptomyces griseus is a DNA binding activator protein with multiple recognition sites. Mol Microbiol 18:151–162
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Retzlaff L., Mayer G., Beyer S., Ahlert J., Verseck S., Distler J., Piepersberg W. 1993; Streptomycin production in streptomycetes: a progress report. In Industrial Microorganisms: Basic and Applied Molecular Genetics pp. 183–194 Baltz R.H., Hegeman G.D., Skatrud P.L. Edited by Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology.;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shapiro S. 1989; Nitrogen assimilation in actinomycetes and the influence of nitrogen nutrition on actinomycete secondary metabolism. In Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes pp. 135–211 Shapiro S. Edited by Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Virolle M.J., Bibb M.J. 1988; Cloning, characterization and regulation of an ɑ -amylase gene from Streptomyces limosus . Mol Microbiol 2:197–208
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-8-1953
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-8-1953
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error