1887

Abstract

The exact identity of cyanobacteria that have been cultured from symbiotic associations with the water spp., whether they are required in the symbiotic process, and their relationship to the symbiotic species, is a matter of some debate. We have characterized a 6 kb region containing the operon and the gene from cyanobacterium 1a, a putative symbiont of . Five complete open reading frames have been sequenced. All are very highly conserved when compared with the corresponding regions of sp. PCC 7120, with 93% to 97% identity at the nucleotide level and 93% to almost 100% at the amino-acid level. The intergenic regions, however, are not highly conserved (53-89% identity) when compared to the corresponding regions of 7120: the genome contains both more copies and more types of short tandemly repeated repetitive sequences than 7120. The startpoints of transcription for both the and operons were mapped and found to be the same as those in 7120. It was not possible to discern an improved consensus promoter sequence, but it was possible to define the likely extent of the promoter to within 40 bases upstream of the transcription start-point.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-9-2235
1995-09-01
2021-10-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/141/9/mic-141-9-2235.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-9-2235&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ausubel F.M., Brent R., Kingston R.E., Moore D.D., Seidman J.G., Smith J.A., Struhl K. 1987 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York:: Greene Publishing Associates & Wiley-Interscience.;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauer C.C., Scappino L., Haselkorn R. 1993; Growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena on molecular nitrogen: NifJ is required when iron is limited.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 908812–8816
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beesley C.E., Smith R.J., Temple S.J., Lea P.J. 1994; Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase (niJH) from the cyanobacterium Nostoc 6720.. Biochim Biophys Acta 1219:548–550
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Belknap W.R., Haselkorn R. 1987; Cloning and light regulation of expression of the phycocyanin operon of the cyanobacterium Anabaena. . EMBO J 6:871–884
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ben-Porath J., Zehr J.P. 1994; Detection and characterization of cyanobacterial nifH genes.. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:880–887
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ben-Porath J., Carpenter E.J., Zehr J.P. 1993; Genotypic relationships in Trichodesmium (Cyanophyceae) based on nifHsequence comparisons.. J Phycol 29:806–810
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Borthakur D., Basche M., Buikema W.J., Borthakur P.B., Haselkorn R. 1990; Expression, nucleotide sequence and mutational analysis of two open reading frames in the nif gene region of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.. Mol & Gen Genet 221:227–234
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Buikema W.J., Haselkorn R. 1991; Characterization of a gene controlling heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.. Genes & Dev 5:321–330
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Defrancesco N., Potts M. 1988; Cloning of nifHD from Nostoc commune UTEX 584 and of a flanking region homologous to part of the Azotobacter vinelandii nifU gene.. J Bacteriol 170:3297–3300
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Evans H.J., Burris R.H. 1992; Highlights in biological nitrogen fixation.. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation pp. 1–42 Stacey G., Burris R. H., Evans H. J. Edited by New York:: Chapman & Hall.;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Franche C., Cohen-Bazire G. 1985; The structural nif genes of four symbiotic Anabaena azollae show a highly conserved physical arrangement.. Plant Sci 39:125–131
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Franche C., Cohen-Bazire G. 1987; Evolutionary divergence in the nif,H, D, K gene region among nine symbiotic Anabaena azollae and between Anabaena azollae and some free-living heterocystous cyanobacteria.. Symbiosis 3:159–178
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fujita Y., Takahashi Y., Shonai F., Ogura Y., Matsubara H. 1991; Cloning, nucleotide sequences and differential expression of the niJH and nifH- like (frxC) genes from the filamentous nitrogenfixing cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. . Plant Cell Physiol 32:1093–1106
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gebhardt J.S., Nierzwicki-Bauer S.A. 1991; Identification of a common cyanobacterial symbiont associated with Azolla spp. through molecular and morphological characterization of free- living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2141–2146
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gilbert D. 1993; The global library.. Trends Biochem Sci 18:107–108
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Golden J.W., Mulligan M.E., Haselkorn R. 1987; Different recombination site specificity of two developmentally regulated genome rearrangements.. Nature 327:526–529
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Golden J.W., Carrasco C.D., Mulligan M.E., Schneider G.J., Haselkorn R. 1988; Deletion of a 55-kilobase-pair DNA element from the chromosome during heterocyst differentiation of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.. J Bacteriol 170:5034–5041
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodrich J.A., Schwartz M.L., McClure W.R. 1990; Searching for and predicting the activity of sites for DNA binding proteins: compilation and analysis of the binding sites for Escherichia coli Integration Host Factor (IHF).. Nucleic Acids Res 18:4993–5000
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Haselkorn R., Buikema W.J. 1992; Nitrogen fixation in cyanobacteria.. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation pp. 166–190 Stacey G., Burris R. H., Evans H. J. Edited by New York:: Chapman & Hall.;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Haselkorn R., Rice D., Curtis S.E., Robinson S.J. 1983; Organization and transcription of genes important in Anabaenaheterocyst differentiation.. Ann Microbiol (Paris) 134B:181–193
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Haselkorn R., Golden J.W., Lammers P.J., Mulligan M.E. 1986; Developmental rearrangement of cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixation genes.. Trends Genet 2:255–259
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hirschberg R., Samson S.M., Kimmel B.E., Page K.A., Collins J.J., Myers J.A., Yarbrough L.R. 1985; Cloning and characterization of nitrogenase genes from Anabaena variabilis. . J Biotechnol 2:23–37
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jaeger J.A., Turner D.H., Zuker M. 1989; Predicting optimal and suboptimal secondary structure for RNA.. Methods Enzymol 183:281–306
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jobling M.G., Holmes R.K. 1990; Construction of vectors with the p15a replicon, kanamycin resistance, inducible lacZa and pUC18 or pUC19 multiple cloning sites.. Nucleic Acids Res 18:5315–5316
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Luftig R., Haselkorn R. 1967; Morphology of a virus of blue-green algae and properties of its deoxyribonucleic acid.. J Virol 1:344–361
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lyons E.M., Thiel T. 1995; Characterization of nifB, nifS, and nifU genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: NifB is required for the vanadium-dependent nitrogenase.. J Bacteriol 177:1570–1575
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mathur M., Tuli R. 1990; Cluster analysis of genes for nitrogen fixation from several diazotrophs.. J Genet 69:67–78
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mazel D., Houmard J., Castets A.M., Tandeau de Marsac N. 1990; Highly repetitive DNA sequences in cyanobacterial genomes.. J Bacteriol 172:2755–2761
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Meeks J.C., Joseph C.M., Haselkorn R. 1988; Organization of the nif genes in cyanobacteria in symbiotic association with Azollaand Anthoceros. . Arch Microbiol 150:61–71
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mevarech M., Rice D., Haselkorn R. 1980; Nucleotide sequence of a cyanobacterial nifH gene coding for nitrogenase reductase.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 776476–6480
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mulligan M.E., Haselkorn R. 1989; Nitrogen-fixation (nif)genes of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120: the nifB-fdxN-nifS-nifU operon.. J Biol Chem 264:19200–19207
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mulligan M.E., Buikema W.J., Haselkorn R. 1988; Bacterial-type ferredoxin genes in the nitrogen fixation regions of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Rhizobium meliloti. . J Bacteriol 170:4406–4410
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Murphy S.T., Jackman D.M., Mulligan M.E. 1993; Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene for dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) from the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. L31.. Biochim Biophys Acta 1171:337–340
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Newton J.W., Herman A.I. 1979; Isolation of cyanobacteria from the aquatic fern, Azolla. . Arch Microbiol 120:161–165
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Parker M. 1993; Biological data access through Gopher.. Trends Biochem Sci 18:485–486
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pearson W.R., Lipman D.J. 1988; Improved tools for biological sequence analysis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 852444–2448
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Peters G.A., Meeks J.C. 1989; The Azollo-Anabaena symbiosis: basic biology.. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:193–210
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Potts M., Angeloni S. V., Ebel R. E., Bassam D. 1992; Myoglobin in a cyanobacterium.. Science 256:1690–1692
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Reed K.C., Mann D.A. 1985; Rapid transfer of DNA from agarose gels to nylon membranes.. Nucleic Acids Res 13:7207–7221
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rice D., Mazur B.J., Haselkorn R. 1982; Isolation and physical mapping of nitrogen fixation genes from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.. J Biol Chem 257:13157–13163
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sambrook J., Fritsch E.F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.;
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Thiel T. 1993; Characterization of genes for an alternative nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. . J Bacteriol 175:6276–6286
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Weiss D.S., Klose K.E., Hoover T.R., North A.K., Porter S.C., Wedel A.B., Kustu S. 1992; Prokaryotic transcriptional enhancers.. In Transcriptional Regulation pp. 667–694 McKnight S. L., Yamamoto K.R. Edited by Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.;
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zimmerman W.J., Rosen B.H. 1992; Cyanobiont diversity within and among cycads of one field site.. Can J Microbiol 38:1324–1328
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Zimmerman W.J., Rosen B.H., Lumpkin T.A. 1989; Enzymatic, lectin, and morphological characterization and classification of presumptive cyanobionts from Azolla Lam.. New Phytol 113:497–503
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zuker M. 1989; On finding all suboptimal foldings of an RNA molecule.. Science 244:48–52
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-9-2235
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-9-2235
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error