1887

Abstract

Summary: If the concept of organization is of such importance as it appears to be, it is something of a scandal that biologists have not yet begun to take it seriously but should have to confess that we have no adequate conception of it. The first duty of the biologist would seem to be to try and make clear this important concept.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-11-2765
1995-11-01
2021-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/141/11/mic-141-11-2765.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-11-2765&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams A.M., Pringle J.R. 1984; Relationship of actin and tubulin distribution to bud growth in wild-type and morphogenetic-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J Cell Biol 98:934–945
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams A.E.M., Johnson D.I., Longnecker R.M., Sloat B.F., Pringle J.R. 1990; CDC42 and CDC43, two additional genes involved in budding and the establishment of cell polarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J Cell Biol 111:131–142
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Akashi T., Kanbe T., Tanaka K. 1994; The role of the cytoskeleton in the polarized growth of the germ tube in Candida albicans.. Microbiology 140:271–280
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amatruda J.F., Vannon J.F., Tachell K., Hug C.H., Cooper J.A. 1990; Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in yeast capping protein mutants.. Nature 344:352–354
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson J.M., Soll D.R. 1986; Differences in actin localization during bud and hypha formation in the yeast Candida albicans.. J Gen Microbiol 132:2035–2047
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Andrews B.J., Herskowitz I. 1990; Regulation of cell-cycle dependent gene expression in yeast.. J Biol Chem 265:14057–14060
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baba M., Baba N., Ohsumi Y., Kanaya K., Osumi M. 1989; Three-dimensional analysis of morphogenesis induced by mating pheromone α-factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J Cell Sci 94:207–216
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bartnicki-Garcia S. 1990; Role of vesicles in apical growth and a new mathematical model of hyphal morphogenesis.. In Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells pp. 211–232 Heath I.B. Edited by San Diego, CA:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bartnicki-Garcia S., Bracker C.E., Ruiz-Herrera J. 1984; Chitosomes from the wall-less ̒slime̓ mutant of Neurospora crassa.. Arch Microbiol 139:105–112
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Berger F., Brownlee C. 1993; Ratio confocal imaging of free cytoplasmic calcium gradients in polarising and polarised Fucuszygotes.. Zygote 1:9–15
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Blacketer M.J., Madaule P., Myers A.M. 1994; The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutation elm 4-1 facilitates pseudohyphal differentiation and interacts with a deficiency in phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase activity to cause constitutive pseudohyphal growth.. Mol Cell Biol 14:4671–4681
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brawley S.H., Robinson K.R. 1985; Cytochalasin treatment disrupts the endogenous currents associated with cell polarisation in fucoid zygotes.. J Cell Biol 100:1173–1184
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brière C., Goodwin B.C. 1988; Geometry and dynamics of tip morphogenesis in Acetabularia.. J Theor Biol 131:461–475
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brockerhoff S.E., Davis T.N. 1992; Calmodulin concentrates at regions of cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J Cell Biol 118:619–629
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chant J., Pringle J.R. 1995; Patterns of bud-site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J Cell Biol 129:751–765
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chant J., Stowers L. 1995; GTPase cascades choreographing cellular behavior: movement, morphogenesis and more.. Cell 81:1–4
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chenevert J., Corrado K., Bender A., Pringle J., Herskowitz I. 1992; A yeast gene (BEM1) necessary for cell polarization whose product contains two SH3 domains.. Nature 356:77–79
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dickinson J.R., Williams A.S. 1987; The cdc30 mutation in Saccharomjces cerevisiae results in a temperature-sensitive isoenzyme of phosphoglucose isomerase.. J Gen Microbiol 133:135–140
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Drubin D.G. 1991; Development of cell polarity in budding yeast.. Cell 65:1093–1096
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Elorza M.V., Sentandreu R., Ruiz-Herrera J. 1994; Isolation and characterization of yeast monomorphic mutants of Candida albicans.. J Bacterial 176:2318–2325
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Flescher E.G., Madden K., Snyder M. 1993; Components required for cytokinesis are important for bud site selection in yeast.. J Cell Biol 122:373–386
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Frankel J. 1989 Pattern Formation: Ciliate Studies and Models. New York:: Oxford University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Frankel J. 1991; The patterning of ciliates.. J Protocol 38:519–525
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Frankel J. 1992; Positional information in cells and organisms.. Trends Cell Biol 2:256–260
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gabriel M., Kopecká M. 1995; Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast results in the formation of an aberrant cell wall.. Microbiology 141:891–899
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Garriel A., Jackson S.A., Lew R.R., Heath I.B. 1993; Ion channel activity and tip growth: tip-localized stretch-activated channels generate an essential Ca2+ gradient in the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax.. Eur J Cell Biol 60:358–365
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gimeno C.J., Ljungdahl P.O., Styles C.A., Fink G.R. 1992; Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast Saccharomjces cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: regulation by starvation and RAS.. Cell 68:1077–1090
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Goodwin B.C. 1986; What are the causes of morphogenesis?. Bioessays 3:32–36
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Goodwin B.C., Brère C. 1992; A mathematical model of cytoskeletal dynamics and morphogenesis in Acetabularia. . In The Cytoskeleton of the Algae pp. 219–237 Menzel D. Edited by Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Goodwin B.C., Kauffman S., Murray J.D. 1993; Is morphogenesis an intrinsically robust process?. J Theor Biol 163:135–144
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Govindvan B., Bowser R., Novick P. 1995; The role of MY02, a yeast class V myosin, in vesicular transport.. J Cell Biol 128:1055–1068
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Gow N.A.R. 1994; Growth and guidance of the fungal hypha.. Microbiology 140:3193–3205
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Gozalbo D., Dubon R., Schwenke J., Sentandreu R. 1987; Characterisation of chitosomes in Candida albicans protoplasts.. Exp Mjcol 11:331–338
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Haarer B.K., Lillie S.H., Adams A.E.M., Magdolen V., Brand-low W., Brown S.S. 1990; Purification of profilin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and analysis of profilin-deficient cells.. J Cell Biol 110:105–114
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Harold F.M. 1990; To shape a cell: an inquiry into the causes of morphogenesis of microorganisms.. Microbiol Rev 54:381–431
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Harold F.M. 1994; Ionic and electrical dimensions of hyphal growth.. In The Mycota 1 pp. 89–109 Wessels J.G.H., Meinhardt F. Edited by Berlin & Heidelberg:: Springer-Verlag.;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Harold F.M., Caldwell J.H. 1990; Tips and currents: electrobiology of apical growth.. In Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells pp. 59–90 Heath I.B. Edited by San Diego, CA:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Harrison L.G. 1993 Kinetic Theory of Living Pattern. London:: Cambridge University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hartwell L.H., Weinert T.A. 1989; Checkpoints : controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events.. Science 246:629–634
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Heath I.B. (editor) 1990 Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells. San Diego, CA:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Heath I.B. 1994; The cytoskeleton in hyphal growth, organelle movements and mitosis.. In The Mycota. 1 pp. 43–65 Wessels J.G.H., Meinhardt F. Edited by Berlin & Heidelberg:: Springer-Verlag.;
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Herth W., Reiss H.-D., Hartmann E. 1990; Role of calcium ions in tip growth of pollen tubes and moss protonema cells.. In Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells pp. 91–118 Heath I.B. Edited by San Diego, CA:: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Huffaker T.C., Thomas J.H., Botstein D. 1988; Adverse effects of β-tubulin mutations on microtubule formation and function.. J Cell Biol 106:1997–2010
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ingber D.E. 1993; Cellular tensegrity: defining new rules of biological design that govern the cytoskeleton.. J Cell Sci 104:613–627
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Jackson S.L., Heath I.B. 1993; Roles of calcium ions in hyphal tip growth.. Microbiol Rev 57:367–382
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Jacob F. 1973 The Logic of Life: a History of Heredity. New York:: Pantheon Books.;
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jacobs C.W., Adams A.E.M., Szaniszlo P.J., Pringle J.R. 1988; Functions of microtubules in the cell cycle.. J Cell Biol 107:1409–1426
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Jaffe L.F. 1968; Localization in the developing Fucus egg and the general role of localizing currents.. Adv Morphog 7:295–328
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Jaffe L.F. 1981; The role of ionic currents in establishing developmental patterns.. Philos Trans R Soc LondSer B 295:553–566
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Jaffe L.F., Robinson K.R., Nuccitelli R. 1974; Local cation entry and self-electrophoresis as an intracellular localization mechanism.. Ann NY Acad Sci 238:372–389
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Johnston L.H. 1992; Cell cycle control of gene expression in yeast.. Trends Cell Biol 2:353–357
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Johnston G.C., Prendergast J.A., Singer B.A. 1991; The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MY02 gene encodes an essential myosin for vectorial transport of vesicles.. J Cell Biol 113:539–551
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kauffman S.A. 1993 Origins of Order: Self-Organisation and Selection in Evolution. Oxford:: Oxford University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kellenberger E. 1990; Form determination of the heads of bacteriophages.. Eur J Biochem 190:233–248
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Kim H.B., Haarer B.K., Pringle J.R. 1991; Cellular mor-phogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle: localization of the CDC3 gene product and the timing of events at the budding site.. J Cell Biol 112:535–544
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Klis F.M. 1994; Cell wall assembly in yeast.. Yeast 10:851–869
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Koch A.L. 1983; The surface stress theory of microbial mor-phogenesis.. Adv Microb Physiol 24:301–366
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Koch A.L. 1994; The problem of hyphal growth in streptomycetes and fungi.. J Theor Biol 171:137–150
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Koch A.L. 1982; The role of surface stress in the morphology of microbes.. J Gen Microbiol 128:927–945
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kopecká M., Gabriel M. 1995; Actin cortical cytoskeleton and cell wall synthesis in regenerating protoplasts of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin mutant DBY 1693.. Microbiology 141:1289–1299
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kropf D.L. 1992; Establishment and expression of cellular polarity in fucoid zygotes.. Microbiol Rev 56:316–339
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kropf D.L. 1994; Cytoskeletal control of cell polarity in a plant zygote.. Dev Biol 165:361–371
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kropf D.L, Hopkins R., Quatrano R.S. 1989; Protein synthesis and morphogenesis are not tightly linked during embryogenesis in Fucus.. Dev Biol 134:452–461
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kühtreiber W.M., Jaffe L.F. 1990; Detection of extracellular calcium gradients with a calcium-specific vibrating electrode.. J Cell Biol 110:1565–1573
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Levin D.E., Bartlett-Heubusch E. 1992; Mutants in the S. cerevisiae PKC-1 gene display a cell-cycle specific osmotic stability defect.. J Cell Biol 116:1221–1229
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Lew D.J., Reed S.I. 1995; A cell cycle checkpoint monitors cell morphogenesis in budding yeast.. J Cell Biol 129:739–749
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Li R., Zheng Y., Drubin D.G. 1995; Regulation of cortical actin cytoskeleton assembly during polarized cell growth in budding yeast.. J Cell Biol 128:599–615
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Liu H., Bretscher A. 1992; Characterization of TPM 1 disrupted yeast cells indicates an involvement of tropomyosin in directed vesicular transport.. J Cell Biol 188:285–299
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Liu H., Köhler J., Fink A. 1994; Suppression of hyphal formation in Candida albicans by mutation of a STE12 homolog.. Science 266:1723–1726
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Madden K., Costigan C., Snyder M. 1992; Cell polarity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Trends Cell Biol 2:22–29
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Maeda T., Worgler-Murphy S., Saito H. 1994; A two-component system that regulates an osmosensing MAD kinase cascade in yeast.. Nature 369:242–245
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Merson-Davies L.A., Odds F.C. 1992; Expansion of the Candida albicans cell envelope in different morphological forms of the fungus.. J Gen Microbiol 138:461–466
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Miller D.D., Callaham D.A., Gross D.J., Hepler P.K. 1992; Free Ca2+ gradient in growing pollen tubes of Lilium.. J Cell Sci 101:7–12
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Money N.P., Harold F.M. 1992; Extension growth of the water mold Achlya: interplay of turgor and wall strength.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 894245–4249
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Money N.P., Harold F.M. 1993; Two water moulds can grow without measurable turgor pressure.. Planta 190:426–430
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Mulholland J., Preuss D., Moon A., Wong A., Drubin D., Botstein D. 1994; Ultrastructure of the yeast actin cytoskeleton and its association with the plasma membrane.. J Cell Biol 125:381–391
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Nelson J.W. 1992; Regulation of cell surface polarity from bacteria to mammals.. Science 258:948–955
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Novick P., Botstein D. 1985; Phenotypic analysis of temper-ature-sensitive yeast actin mutants.. Cell 40:405–416
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Odds F.C. 1985; Morphogenesis in Candida albicans.. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 12:45–93
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Pringle J.R., Hartwell L.H. 1981; The Saccharomyces cerevisiaecell cycle.. In The Molecular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces: Life Cycle and Inheritance pp. 97–142 Strathern J.N., Jones E.W., Broach J.R. Edited by Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.;
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Rathore K.S., Cork R.J., Robinson K.R. 1991; A cytoplasmic gradient of Ca2+ is correlated with the growth of lily pollen tubes.. Dev Biol 148:612–619
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Riedl R. 1978 Order in Living Organisms. New York:: Wiley.;
    [Google Scholar]
  83. St Johnston D., NUsslein-Volhardt C. 1992; The origin of pattern and polarity in the Drosophila embryo.. Cell 68:201–219
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Sapp J. 1987 Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics. New York & Oxford:: Oxford University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Saunders P.T., Trinci A.P.J. 1979; Determination of tip shape in fungal hyphae.. J Gen Microbiol 110:469–473
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Segall J.A. 1993; Polamation of yeast cells in spatial gradients of a mating factor.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 908332–8336
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Shaw J.A., Mol P.C., Bowers B., Silverman S.J., Valdivieso M.H., Duran A., Carib E. 1991; The functions of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle.. J Cell Biol 114:111–123
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Sloat B.F., Adams A., Pringle J.R. 1981; Roles of the CDC24 gene product in cellular morphogenesis during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle.. J Cell Biol 89:395–405
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Soll D.R., Sonneborn D. 1971; Zoospore germination in Blastocladiella emersonii: cell differentiation without protein synthesis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68459–463
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Soll D.R., Herman M.A., Staebell M.A. 1985; The involvement of cell wall expansion in the two modes of mycelium formation of Candida albicans.. J Gen Microbiol 131:2367–2375
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Staebell M., Soll D.R. 1985; Temporal and spatial differences in cell wall expansion during bud and mycelium formation in Candida albicans.. J Gen Microbiol 131:1467–1480
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Stent G.S. 1978 Paradoxes of Progress. New York:: W. H. Freeman.;
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Stent G.S. 1981; Strength and weakness of the genetic approach to the development of the nervous system.. Annu Rev Neurosci 4:163–194
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Stent G.S. 1985; Thinking in one dimension: the impact of molecular biology on development.. Cell 40:1–2
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Sun G.H., Ohya Y., Anraku Y. 1992; Yeast calmodulin locates to sites of cell growth.. Protoplasma 166:110–112
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Thompson D′A.W. 1961 On Growth and Form, abridged edition.. Cambridge:: Cambridge University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Waddington C.H. 1957 The Strategy of the Genes. London:: George, Allen & Unwin.;
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Webster G., Goodwin B.C. 1981; History and structure in biology.. Perspect Biol Med 25:39–62
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Wessels J.G.H. 1986; Cell wall synthesis in apical hyphal growth.. Int Rev Cytol 104:37–79
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Wessels J.G.H. 1993; Wall growth, protein excretion and morphogenesis in fungi.. New Phytol 123:397–413
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Woodger J.H. 1929 Biological Principles-A Critical Study. London:: Routledge & Kegan Paul (reprinted 1967).;
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Yokoyama K., Kaji H., Nishimura K., Miyaji M. 1994; The role of microfilaments and microtubules during pH-regulated morphological transition in Candida albicans.. Microbiology 140:281–287
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-11-2765
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-141-11-2765
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error