SUMMARY: Enzymes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylate acid cycle, glyoxylate by-pass and fatty-acid biosynthesis were assayed in extracts from 107 grown continuously on glucose under carbon limitation, nitrogen limitation and on -alkanes. The yeast was therefore either in a lipogenic or lipolytic state. Phosphofructokinase was absent under all conditions whereas enzymes of gluconeogenesis, including fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and the pentose phosphate cycle, were all present. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were specific for NADP+ and were inhibited in a non-competitive manner by NADPH and NADH. Phosphoenolpyruvate, citrate, ATP and acetyl CoA had no inhibitory effects. Thus glucose metabolism appears to be by the pentose phosphate pathway which will rapidly produce NADPH. This can readily be consumed during fatty-acid biosynthesis and, as there appears to be no inhibition of the flow of carbon from glucose to acetyl CoA, fatty-acid synthesis can continue for as long as there is a supply of glucose. These results help to explain the probable causes of fat build-up to high concentrations (about 40% of the cell dry weight) in this and other organisms. In alkane-grown cells, lipogenesis is repressed and carbon is able to flow from the alkanes via acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate and pyruvate into pentoses and hexoses in a unidirectional manner, because of the strong repression of pyruvate kinase and the increased activities of phosphoenolpyruvate kinase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase under these conditions. Although there was little change in the total activity of the TCA cycle enzymes under the various growth conditions, isocitrate lyase was induced under lipolytic conditions.


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