1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: During chloroplast development, the large increases in ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (RUDPCase) activity and cytochrome 552 concentration follow the pattern of chlorophyll synthesis, in that the formation of these two enzymes is inhibited by streptomycin (Sm) and by chloramphenicol (Cm) beyond 12 h of development. Neither enzyme can be detected in , a mutant of Euglena in which chloroplasts and chloroplast DNA are undetectable. In contrast, the NADP-linked triose phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP-TPDase), another plastid- localized enzyme, increases in activity without the 12 h lag normally observed for chlorophyll synthesis; this increase in activity is not inhibited by Sm and Cm, but is inhibited by cycloheximide, an antibiotic which acts on 87 S cytoplasmic ribosomes. NADP-TPDase activity is present at the same level in as in the dark-grown wild-type organisms. These data are interpreted to mean that NADP-TPDase is coded in the nuclear DNA, and is translated on 87 S cytoplasmic ribosomes. The sensitivity of the increase in cytochrome 552 and RUDPCase activities to Sm and Cm indicates that they are translated, at least in part, on the 68 S ribosomes of the chloroplast. Thus, chloroplast differentiation in Euglena is dependent upon information and synthetic machinery from both the plastid and the rest of the cell. Since total cellular protein does not change significantly during chloroplast development in resting cells, we conclude that protein turnover probably occurs.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-83-1-63
1974-07-01
2022-01-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/83/1/mic-83-1-63.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-83-1-63&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Avadhani N. G., Buetow D. E. 1972a; Protein synthesis with isolated mitochondrial polysomes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 46:773–778
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Avadhani N. G., Buetow D. E. 1972b; Isolation of active polyribosomes from the cytoplasm, mitochondria and chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis . Biochemical Journal 128:353–365
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baccarini A., Melandri B. A. 1970; Relationship between increased NADP-linked glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and protein synthesis during the greening of etiolated pea seedlings. Physiologia plantarum 23:444–451
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bovarnick J. G., Chang S. W., Schiff J. A., Schwartzbach S. D. 1974; Events surrounding the early development of Euglena chloroplasts: experiments with streptomycin in non-dividing cells. Journal of General Microbiology 83:51–62
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bovarnick J. G., Freedman Z., Schiff J. A. 1970; Cellular origins of chloroplast enzymes in Euglena . Plant Physiology 46:S21
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cohen D., Schiff J. A. 1973; Photoregulation of formation and turnover of chloroplast rRNA (ChlrRNA) and cytoplasmic rRNA (CytrRNA) during chloroplast development in Euglena gracilisKlebs var. bacillaris Pringsheim. Biophysical Journal 13:111a
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Edelman M., Schiff J. A., Epstein H. T. 1965; Studies of chloroplast development in Euglena. XII. Two types of satellite DNA. Journal of Molecular Biology 11:769–774
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Egan J. M. Jun Carell E. F. 1972; Studies on chloroplast development and replication in Euglena.III. A study of the site of synthesis of alkaline deoxyribonuclease induced during chloroplast development in Euglena gracilis . Plant Physiology 50:391–395
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ellis R. J. 1969; Stereospecificity of inhibition by chloramphenicol. Science; New York: 158477–478
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fuller R. C., Gibbs M. 1959; Intracellular and phylogenetic distribution of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Plant Physiology 34:324–329
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Heber U., Pon N. G., Heber M. 1963; Localization of carboxydismutase and triose phosphate dehydrogenases in chloroplasts. Plant Physiology 38:355–360
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Huang M., Briggs D. R., Clark-Walker G. C., Linnane A. W. 1966; Chloramphenicol inhibition of the formation of particulate mitochondrial enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Biochimica et biophysica acta 114:434–436
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hudock G. A., Fuller R. C. 1965; Control of triose phosphate dehydrogenase in photosynthesis. Plant Physiology 40:1205–1211
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Katoh S., San Pietro A. 1967; The role of c-type cytochrome in the Hill reaction with Euglena chloroplasts. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 118:488–496
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Latzko E., Gibbs M. 1968; Distribution and activity of enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in spinach leaves and in chloroplasts isolated by different methods. Zeitschrift Pflanzenphysi- ologie 59:184–194
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lowry O. H., Rosebrough J. J., Farr A. L., Randall R. J. 1951; Protein measurements with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193:265–275
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Melandri B. A., Pupillo P., Baccarini-Melandri A. 1970; d-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in photosynthetic cells. I. The reversible light-induced activation in vivo of NADP- dependent enzyme and its relationship to NAD-dependent activities. Biochimica et biophysica acta 220:178–189
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Modolell J., Davis B. D. 1968; Rapid inhibition of polypeptide chain extension by streptomycin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 61:1279–1286
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mounolu J. C., Jacob H., Slonimski P. P. 1966; Molecular nature of the hereditary cytoplasmic factors controlling gene expression in mitochondria. In The Control of Nuclear Activity Goldstein L. Edited by Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Muller B. 1970; On the mechanism of the light-induced activation of the NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochimica et biophysica acta 205:102–109
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nass M. K., Ben-Shaul Y. 1972; A novel closed circular duplex DNA in bleached mutants and green strains of Euglena gracilis . Biochimica et biophysica acta 272:130–136
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nishimura M. 1959; A new hematin compound isolated from Euglena gracilis . Journal of Biochemistry 46:219–223
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Perini F., Schiff J. A., Kamen M. D. 1964; Iron-containing proteins in Euglena. II. Functional localization. Biochimica et biophysica acta 88:91–98
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Provasoli L., Hutner S. H., Schatz A. 1948; Streptomycin-induced chlorophyll-less races of Euglena . Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 69:279–282
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pupillo P. 1972; The specificity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in green plants, Euglenaand Ochromonas . Phytochemistry 11:153–161
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rawson J. R., Stutz E. 1968; Characterization of Euglena cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomal RNA by zone velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. Journal of Molecular Biology 33:309–314
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ray D. S., Hanawalt P. C. 1964; Properties of the satellite DNA associated with the chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis . Journal of Molecular Biology 9:812–824
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Reger B. J., Fairfield S. A., Epler J. L., Barnett W. E. 1970; Identification and origin of some chloroplast aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 67:1207–1213
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Schiff J. A. 1970; Developmental interactions among cellular compartments in Euglena . In Autonomy and Biogenesis of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts pp 98–118 Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Schiff J. A. 1971; The informational and nutritional requirements of cellular organelles. Stadler Symposia 3:89–113
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schiff J. A., Zeldin M. H. 1968; The developmental aspect of chloroplast continuity in Euglena . Journal of Cell Physiology 72:S103–128
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schiff J. A., Zeldin M. H., Rubman J. 1967; Chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic competence in Euglena during light-induced chloroplast development in the presence of 3 (3,4-dichlorophenyl) 1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU). Plant Physiology 42:1716–1725
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schwartzbach S. D., Freyssinet G., Schiff J. A. 1973; Binding of dihydrostreptomycin to Euglenachloroplast ribosomes prepared by an improved procedure. Plant Physiology 51:S 27
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Scott M. S., Smillie R. M. 1969; Ribosomal RNA in chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis . Currents in Modern Biology 2:339–342
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sherman F., Stewart J. W., Parker J. H., Inhaber E., Shipman N., Putterman J., Gardinsky R., Margoliash E. 1968; The mutational alteration of the primary structure of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c . Journal of Biological Chemistry 243:5446–5456
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Shori L., Ben-Shaul Y., Edelman M. 1970; The size of mitochondrial DNA in Euglena gracilis . Israel Journal of Chemistry 8:117p
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Smillie R. M. 1968; Enzymology of Euglena . In The Biology of Euglena 2 Buetow D. Edited by New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Smillie R. M., Evans W. R., Lyman H. 1963; Metabolic events during the formation of a photosynthetic from a nonphotosynthetic cell. Brookhaven Symposia 16:89–108
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Smillie R. M., Graham D., Dwyer M. R., Grieve A., Tobin N. F. 1967; Evidence for the synthesis in vivo of proteins of the Calvin cycle and of the photosynthetic electron-transfer pathway on chloroplast ribosomes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 28:604–610
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stutz E., Vandrey J. P. 1971; Ribosomal DNA satellite of Euglena gracilis chloroplast DNA. FEBS Letters 17:277–280
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wolken J. J., Gross J. A. 1963; Development and characteristics of the Euglena c-type cytochrome. Journal of Protozoology 10:189–195
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zeldin M. H., Schiff J. A. 1968; A comparison of light-dependent RNA metabolism in wild-type Euglena with that of mutants impaired for chloroplast development. Planta 81:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-83-1-63
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-83-1-63
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error