SUMMARY: Mycoplasmas which metabolized urea and produced small colonies on agar medium were isolated from the genital tracts of dogs and from the throats of squirrel monkeys. Attempts to isolate similar organisms from baboons, cats, horses, pigs and rabbits were not successful. The biological and physical properties of the mycoplasmas isolated from dogs and monkeys were closely similar to those of T-mycoplasmas isolated previously from man and cattle, so that the canine and simian strains could be regarded undoubtedly as members of the T-mycoplasma group. The metabolic-inhibition technique was used to show that the T-mycoplasmas of the four ‘host’ species were not related to known large colony-forming mycoplasmas of these species. The same technique revealed that some of the T-mycoplasma strains isolated from a particular species were different from one another, except the simian strains which appeared to be the same as each other. In addition, the results of tests with a single or a few strains isolated from each of the four species showed that the strains of one species were not serologically related to those of another. On the other hand, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies, in which at least 11 lines were observed with T-mycoplasma antigens, indicated that the structural proteins of strains isolated from the various species were closely similar. The fact that all the strains examined could be regarded as belonging to one closely related group is discussed in the context of the eventual nomenclature for these organisms.


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