1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

By repeated subcultivation of the parent strain 8081 in the presence of methicillin, a substrain 8081 CRD was developed which grew only when the partly defined medium was supplemented with methicillin or certain other penicillins. The methicillin-dependent strain was not highly resistant to methicillin and grew only in the presence of a limited range of concentrations of it (about 10–300 g./ml.). Even with an optimal growth concentration of methicillin (50–100 g./ml.), the dependent organisms grew less well than did the parent strain without methicillin and showed a longer lag period before growth became visible.

Although other derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (but not of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid) supported moderate growth of 8081 , none was as effective as methicillin, nor was there marked cross-resistance to any of these other derivatives. The more potent the penicillin as inhibitor of growth of the parent strain, the smaller was the optimal concentration needed to support growth of the dependent substrain. Several other antibiotics were ineffective as growth factors.

When methicillin was hydrolysed with acid, alkali or pencillinase, activity as a growth factor was lost. During growth of the parent strain and of the methicillin-dependent strain at pH 6·5 material was produced in the medium which was able to destroy the antibiotic potency of methicillin or other penicillins. The substance was not an enzyme, and the presence of methicillin was not necessary to induce its formation by the parent strain.

The methicillin-dependent strain did not grow, with or without methicillin, when sodium acetate was omitted from the medium. No substance of known chemical structure was found which could replace acetate for growth. 8081 CRD grew rapidly in the absence of both acetate and methicillin when the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. However, when acetate was present as well as yeast extract, methicillin again became necessary for growth of the dependent organisms.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-50-1-85
1968-01-01
2021-10-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/50/1/mic-50-1-85.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-50-1-85&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abraham E. P. 1955; Penicillinase. In Meth. Enzymol 2:120
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altenburn R. A. 1961; Critical factors influencing growth of l-forms of Proteus mirabilis . J. Bact 81:586
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson W. F., Gorini L., Breckenridge L. 1965; Role of ribosomes in streptomycin-activated suppression. Proc. natn. Acad. SciU.S.A 541076
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barber M. 1953a; Penicillin-resistant and penicillin-dependent staphylococcal variants. J. gen. Microbiol 8:111
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barber M. 1953b; Antibiotic-resistant staphyloccal variants. Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol 3235
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gorini L., Kataja E. 1964; Phenotypic repair by streptomycin of defective genotypes in E. coli . Proc. natn. Acad. SciU.S.A. 51487
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Izaki K., Matsuhashi M., Strominger J. L. 1966; Glycopeptide transpeptidase and D-alanine carboxypeptidase: penicillin-sensitive enzymatic reactions. Proc. natn. Acad. SciU.S.A. 55656
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jackson F. L. 1953; Discussion. Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol 3249
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Marshall J. H., Kelsey J. C. 1960; A standard culture medium for general bacteriology. J. Hyg. Camb 58:367
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Reed J. L., De Busk B. G., Gunsalus I. C., Hornberger C. S. Jr. 1951; Crystalline α-lipoic acid: a catalytic agent associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase. Science, N.Y. 114:93
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Rogers H. J., Jeljaszewicz J. 1961; Inhibition of biosynthesis of cell-wall mucopeptides by penicillins. Penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus . Biochem. J. 81:576
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Rogers H. J., Mandelstam J. 1962; Inhibition of cell-wall-mucopeptide formation in Escherichia coli by benzyl penicillin and 6-[d(–)-α-aminophenylacetamido]penicillanic acid (ampicillin). Biochem. J 84:299
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Rolinson G. N., Stevens S., Batchelor F. R., Cameron-Wood J., Chain E. B. 1960; Bacteriological studies on a new penicillin-BRL. 1241. Lancet ii:564
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Sauberlich H. E., Baumann C. A. 1948; A factor required for the growth of Leuconostoc citrovorum . J. biol. Chem 176:165
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Schnitzer R. J., Grunberg E. 1957 Drug Resistance of Microorganisms New York: Academic Press Inc;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Strominger J. L., Izaki K., Matsuhashi M., Tipper D. J. 1967; Peptidoglycan transpeptidase and d-alanine carboxypeptidase : penicillin-sensitive enzymatic reactions. Fedn. Proc. 269
    [Google Scholar]
  17. White P. J. 1962; A penicillin-dependent substrain of Pediococcus cerevisiae . Abstr. VIII Congr. int. Microbiol. Montreal75
    [Google Scholar]
  18. White P. J. 1967; A comparison of the cell walls of Pediococcus cerevisiae and of a substrain that requires methicillin for growth. J. gen. Microbiol 50:107
    [Google Scholar]
  19. White P. J., Nichol C. A. 1963; Effects of uracil and thymidine on the development of resistance to 5-fluorouracil in Pediococcus cerevisiae . J. Bact 85:97
    [Google Scholar]
  20. White P. J., Woods D. D. 1965; The synthesis of p-aminobenzoic acid and folic acid by staphylococci sensitive and resistant to sulphonamides. J. gen. Microbiol 40:243
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Work E. 1962; Discussion in Resistance of Bacteria to the Penicillins . de Reuck A. V. S., Cameron M. P. CIBA Foundation Study Group no. 1350 London: J. and A. Churchill Ltd;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-50-1-85
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-50-1-85
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error