1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: An internal organization is revealed in resting spores of spp. by brief treatment at room temperature with -HNO or, more effectively, a mixture of /3-HNO (or HCI) with 0·1 % potassium permanganate. Two distinct steps are involved: the first initiates the reaction without visible changes in the spore; the second is an instantaneous process which abolishes the refractility of the spore and allows staining of the contents. These differentiating procedures have no observable effect on vegetative cells, and the spore's response to them is abruptly abolished with the onset of germination. They are ineffective on heat-killed spores and are inhibited, under certain conditions irreversibly, by 0·5–1 % sodium fluoride. Differentiating reagents probably act indirectly by stimulating abnormal chemical activity of the spore.

Three structures, interpreted as the outer spore membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm, can be distinguished in treated spores. Differentiation does not alter the size or the shape of the spore but shrinks the cytoplasm away from the membrane and, in permanganate-containing mixtures, changes the configuration of the nucleus. The extent of these rearrangements varies with the temperature at which differentiation is carried out. The nucleus is on the outer surface of the cytoplasm and connected with it by a short narrow stalk. The nucleus gives a positive Feulgen reaction. Nucleus and cytoplasm of spores differentiated with /3-HNO or HCI containing 0·1% of KMnO are soluble in phosphate buffers at pH 6·3–7·6 and /16 sodium acetate at pH 7·4. Nucleus and cytoplasm are insoluble in these solutions after differentiation with -HNO, but the nucleus of spores treated in this way is destroyed by trypsin in phosphate butter.

The existence of a second, inner, spore membrane, jointly surrounding nucleus and cytoplasm, is postulated. This layer is believed to be the seat of the spore's bright retractility and imperviousness to stains.

The huge spores of react like spores to differentiating reagents and permit direct observation of the act of transformation from the featureless to the differentiated aspect of the spore.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-3-439
1951-08-01
2022-01-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/5/3/mic-5-3-439.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-3-439&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bisset K. A. 1950; The sporulation of Clostridium tetani. J. gen. Microbiol 4:1
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chatton E., Pérard C. 1913; Schizophytes du caecum du cobaye. II. Meta-bacterium polyspora n.g., n.sp. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris 74:1232
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Delaporte Berthe. 1939–40; Recherches cytologiques sur les bactéries et les cyanophycées. Rev. gén. Bot 51:615–689 748, 52, 112
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Delaporte Berthe. 1950; Observations on the cytology of bacteria. Advanc. Genet 31 New York, N.Y: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dooren de Jong L. E. den. 1933; Über Bacillus mycoides und den Pleomorphismus. Arch. Mikrobiol 4:36
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Flewett T. H. 1948; Nuclear changes in Bacillus anthracis and their relation to variants. J. gen. Microbiol 2:325
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Kirby H. 1944; The structural characteristics and nuclear parasites of some species of Trychonympha in termites. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool 49:185
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Klieneberger-Nobel E. 1945; Changes in the nuclear structure of bacteria, particularly during spore formation. J. Hyg., Carrib 44:99
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Knaysi G. 1946; Further observations on the nuclear material of the bacterial cell. J. Bact 51:177
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Knaysi G. 1948; The endospore of bacteria. Bact. Rev 12:19
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Knaysi G., Baker R. F. 1947; Demonstration, with the electron microscope, of a nucleus in Bacillus mycoides grown in a nitrogen-free medium. J. Bact 53:539
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Knaysi G., Baker R. F., Hillier J. 1947; A study, with the high-voltage electron microscope, of the life cycle and structure of the endospore in Bacillus mycoides. J. Bact 53:525
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kroenig B., Paul T. 1897; Die chemischen Grundlagen der Lehre von der Giftwirkung und Diesinfektion. Z. Hyg. InfektKr 25:1
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lewis I. M. 1934; Cell inclusions and endospore formation in Bacillus mycoides. J. Bact 28:133
    [Google Scholar]
  15. McGaughey C. A., Chu H. P. 1948; The egg yolk reaction of aerobic sporing bacilli. J. gen. Microbiol 2:334
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Milovidov P. 1935; Ergebnisse der Nuklealfärbung bei den Myxobakterien und einigen anderen Bakterien. Arch. Mikrobiol 6:475
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Piekarski G. 1937; Cytologische Untersuchungen an Paratyphus- und Coli-bakterien. Arch. Mikrobiol 8:428
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Piekarski G. 1940; Über kernähnliche Strukturen bei Bacillus mycoides Flügge. Arch. Mikrobiol 11:406
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Robinow C. F. 1942; A study of the nuclear apparatus of bacteria. Proc. roy. Soc B 130:299
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Robinow C. F. 1945; ‘Addendum’ to The Bacterial Cell, by R. J. Dubos. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stille B. 1937; Zytologische Untersuchungen an Bakterien mit Hilfe der Feulgenschen Nucleal Reaktion. Arch. Mikrobiol 8:125
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-3-439
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-3-439
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error