1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: The main action of streptomycin on is bactericidal. In an ‘untrained’ population the number of cells able to survive in streptomycin diminishes with increasing concentration of the antibiotic. If the surviving cells are mutants, many mutant types must be assumed to explain the many degrees of resistance. Ability to survive does not necessarily imply ability to grow in streptomyein. Survivors sometimes have a long lag before growth occurs in liquid or solid media, which suggests that modification of cell protoplasm may be taking place. Colonies picked from high-concentration streptomycin plates often contain so many non-resistant cells that their origin from a single resistant mutant is unlikely. Training to grow in streptomycin may involve a mixed process of selection (by killing) and adaptation. There is close correspondence between the degree of resistance and the training concentration. Partial dependence on streptomycin is acquired. An attempt to train a culture by a method designed to exclude selection was unsuccessful.

Morphological changes were found in untrained cultures grown in streptomycin.

Different samples from one culture frequently showed considerable variation in the number of apparently resistant cells present, depending at least partly on the dilution of the sample and the conditions of spacing on the plate. Resistance is a conditional property; in view of this it is dangerous to construct mutational theories on the evidence of variability between different cultures.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-1-1
1951-02-01
2021-07-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/5/1/mic-5-1-1.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-1-1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Davies D. S., Hinshelwood C. N., Pryce J. M. 1944; Studies in the mechanism of bacterial adaptation. Trans. Faraday Soc 40:397
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Davies D. S., Hinshelwood C. N. 1945a; Adaptation of Bact. lactis aerogenes to varying concentrations of an antibacterial drug (proflavine). Trans. Faraday Soc 41:163
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Davies D. S., Hinshelwood C. N. 1945b; Adaptation of Bact. ladis aerogenes to high concentrations of proflavine. Trans. Faraday Soc 41:778
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Demerec M. 1945; Production of Staphylococcus strains resistant to various concentrations of penicillin. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., Wash 31:16
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Demerec M. 1948; Origin of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. J. Bact 56:63
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Donald R. 1915; A method of drop-measuring liquids and suspensions. Lancet ii:1243
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fildes P., Whitaker K. 1948; Training or mutation in bacteria. Brit. J. exp. Path 29:240
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hinshelwood C. N. 1946 The Chemical Kinetics of the Bacterial cell Oxford: Clarendon Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jackson S., Hinshelwood C. N. 1950; An investigation of the nature of certain adaptive changes in bacteria. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 136:562
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Klein M. 1947; A mechanism for the development of resistance to streptomycin and penicillin. J. Bact 53:463
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lewis I. M. 1934; Bacterial variation with special reference to the behaviour of some mutabile strains of colon bacteria in synthetic media. J. Bact 28:619
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Linz R. 1948a; Relations entre la concentration bactériostatique de la streptomycine et la concentration des bactéries. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris 142:1062
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Linz R. 1948b; Effets des concentrations minimes de streptomycine sur les bacteries sensibles. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris 142:1066
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lodge R. M., Hinshelwood C. N. 1944; Adaptation of Bad. ladis aerogenes to certain changes of medium. Trans. Faraday Soc 40:571
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Luria S. E., Delbrück M. 1943; Mutations of bacteria from virus sensitivity to virus resistance. Genetics 28:491
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Miles A. A., Misra S. S. 1938; Estimation of bactericidal power of blood. J. Hyg., Camb 38:732
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Miller C. P., Bohnhoff M. 1947; On the mechanism of development of streptomycin resistance. J. Bact 54:8
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Newcombe H. B. 1948; Delayed phenotypic expression of spontaneous mutants in E. coli. Genetics 33:447
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Paine T. F., Finland M. 1948; Observations on bacteria sensitive to, resistant to, and dependent on streptomycin. J. Bact 56:207
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pryce J. M. G., Davies D. S., Hinshelwood C. N. 1945; Quantitative relation between the adaptations of Bad. laetis aerogenes to two antibacterial agents (methylene blue and proflavine). Trans. Faraday Soc 41:465
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ryan F. J. 1948; On the stability of nutritional mutants of bacteria. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., Wash 34:425
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Scott G. W. 1949; Spontaneous mutation to streptomycin resistance in Escherischia coli. Brit. J. exp. Path 30:501
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Silver H. K., Kempe C. H. 1947; Resistance to streptomycin. A study of the mechanisms in its development. J. Immunol 57:263
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sonneborn T. M. 1948; The determination of hereditary antigenic differences in genically identical Paramoecium cells. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., Wash 34:413
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Waksman S. A. 1944; Isolation of antibiotic substances from soil micro-organisms with special reference to streptothricin and streptomycin. Proc. Mayo Clin 19:537
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Wilson G. S. 1922; The proportion of viable bacteria in young cultures with special reference to the technique employed in counting. J. Bact 7:405
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-1-1
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-5-1-1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error