1887

Abstract

The spores of original isolates of Clostridium species obtained from fresh and processed marine fish and from marine bottom deposits were compared with the spores of culture collection strains of the same species. These strains were type E, and Spores of unclassified, non-toxigenic isolates which resemble type E, of ‘OS mutants’, of culture collection strains of types A and B and an isolate of type F were also examined. The gross morphology and ultrastructure of the spores and exosporia were studied in electron microscopic preparations by using the techniques of metal shadowing, carbon replica, negative-staining and ultra-thin sectioning. Spores of some strains were found to possess tubular appendages. The morphology of the spores and the ultrastructural detail of the spore appendages and exosporia are described.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-47-2-213
1967-05-01
2021-10-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/47/2/mic-47-2-213.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-47-2-213&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bott T. L., Defner J. S., McCoy E., Foster E. M. 1966; Clostridium botulinum type E in fish from the Great Lakes. J. Bact 91:919
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bradley D. E., Franklin J. G. 1958; Electron microscope survey of the surface configuration of spores of the genus Bacillus . J. Bact 76:618
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bradley D. E., Williams D. J. 1957; An electron microscope study of the spores of some species of the genus Bacillus using carbon replicas. J. gen. Microbiol 17:75
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brenner S., Horne R. W. 1959; A negative staining method for high resolution electron microscopy of viruses. Boichim. biophys. Acta 34:103
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brooks M. E., Epps H. B. G. 1959; Taxonomic studies of the genus Clostridium: Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii . J. gen. Microbiol 21:144
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cann D. C., Wilson B. B., Shewan J. M., Hobbs G. 1966; Incidence of Clostridium botulinum type E in fish products in the United Kingdom. Nature, Lond 211:205
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cann D. C., Wilson B. B., Hobbs G., Shewan J. M., Johannsen A. 1965; The incidence of Clostridium botulinum type E in fish and bottom deposits in the North Sea and off the coast of Scandinavia. J. appl. Bact 28:426
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chapman H. M., Naylor H. B. 1966; Isolation of Clostridium botulinum type E from Cayuga Lake fish. Appl. Microbiol 14:301
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Craig J. M., Pilcher K. S. 1966 Clostridium botulinum type F: isolation from salmon from the Columbia River, Science, N.Y 153:311
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dolman C. E. 1957; Recent observations on type E botulism. Can. J. publ. Hlth 48:187
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dolman C. E. 1964; Growth and metabolic activities of C. botulinum types. In Botulism, Proceedings of a Symposium Publ. Hlth. Serv. Pubis., Wash. no. 999-FP-l;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dolman C. E., Chang H. 1953; The epidemiology and pathogenesis of type E and fish-borne botulism. Can. J. Publ. Hlth 44:231
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dolman C. E., Darby G. E., Lane R. F. 1955; Type E botulism due to salmon eggs. Can. J. publ. Hlth 46:135
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dondero N. C., Holbert P. E. 1957; The endospore of Bacillus polymyxa . J. Bact 74:43
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fitz-James P. C. 1962; Morphology of spore development in Clostridium pectinovorum . J. Bact 84:104
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Franklin J. G., Bradley D. E. 1957; A further study of the spores of the genus Bacillus in the electron microscope using carbon replicas, and some preliminary observations on Clostridium welchii . J. appl. Bact 20:467
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gerhardt P., Ribi E. 1964; Ultrastructure of the exosporium enveloping spores of Bacillus cereus . J. Bact 88:1774
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hashimoto T., Naylor H. B. 1958; Studies on the fine structure of microorganisms. II. Electron microscopic studies of sporulation of Clostridium sporogenes J. Bact 75:647
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hobbs G., Roberts T. A., Walker P. D. 1965; Some observations on OS variants of Clostridium botulinum type E. J. appl. Bact 28:147
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hobbs G., Cann D. C., Wilson B. B., Shewan J. M. 1965; The incidence of organisms of the genus Clostridium in vacuum packed fish in the United Kingdom. J. appl. Bact 28:265
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hodgkiss W., Ordal Z. J. 1966; The morphology of the spore of some strains of Clostridium botulinum type E. J. Bact 91:2031
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hodgkiss W., Ordal Z. J., Cann D. C. 1966; The comparative morphology of the spores of Clostridium botulinum type E and the spores of the ‘OS mutant’. Can. J. Microbiol 12:1283
    [Google Scholar]
  23. van den Hooff A., Aninga S. 1956; An electron microscope study on the shape of spores of Bacillus polymyxa . Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 22:327
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Huang C. T. 1959; Comparison of Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sordellii . Ph.D. Thesis University of Leeds;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Huang C. T., Tamai K., Nishida S. 1965; Taxonomy of Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sordelli . III. Agglutinability of heat-resistant sub-strains of Clostridium sordellii J. Bact 90:391
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kautter D. A., Harmon S. M., Lynt R. K. Jun., Lilly T. Jun. 1966; Antagonistic effect on Clostridium botulinum type E by organisms resembling it. Appl. Microbiol 14:616
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Krassil’nikov N. A., Duda V. I., Sokolov A. A. 1964; Protrusions on the surface of spores of anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium . Mikrobiologiya 33:454
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Luft J. 1961; Improvements in epoxy resin embedding method. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol 9:409
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nakamura Y., Iida H., Saeki K., Kanzawa K., Karashimada T. 1956; Type E botulism in Hokkaido, Japan. Jap. J. med. Sei. Biol 9:45
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nishida S., Tamai K., Yamagishi T. 1964; Taxonomy of Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sordellii . I. Their toxicity, urease activity and sporulating potency J. Bact 88:1641
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Robinow C. F. 1960; Morphology of bacterial spores, their development and germination. In The Bacteria Ed. by Gunsalus I. C., Stanier R. Y. i p 207 London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schmidt C. F., Nank W. K., Lechowich R. V. 1962; Radiation sterilization of food. II. Some aspects of the growth, sporulation and radiation resistance of spores of Clostridium botulinum type E. J. Food Sei 27:77
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stewart G. J. 1963 Studies on spores of Clostridium botulinum Ph.D. Thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Takagi A., Kawata T., Yamamoto S. 1960; Electron microscope studies on ultra-thin sections of spores of the Clostridium group, with special reference to the sporulation and germination process. J. Bact 80:37
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Takagi A., Kawata T., Yamamoto T., Kubo T., Okita S. 1960; Electron microscope studies on ultra-thin sections of spores of Clostridium tetani and Clostridium histolyticum with special reference to sporulation and spore germination process. Jap. J. Microbiol 4:137
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Takagi A., Nakamura K., Ueda M. 1965; Electron microscope studies of the intracytoplasmic membrane system in Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum . Jap. J. Microbiol 9:131
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tamai K., Nishida S. 1964; Taxonomy of Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sordellii n. Toxigenic and sporulating potencies in substrains of a Clostridium sordellii strain. J. Bact 88:1647
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tresner H. D., Davies M. C., Backus E. J. 1961; Electron microscopy of Streptomyces spore morphology and its role in species differentiation. J. Bact 81:70
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Walker P. D. 1963; The spore antigens of Clostridium sporogenes, C. bifermentans and C. sordellii . J. Path. Bact 85:41
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Willis A. T., Hobbs G. 1958; A medium for the identification of clostridia producing opalescence in egg yolk emulsions. J. Path. Bact 75:299
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-47-2-213
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-47-2-213
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error