1887

Abstract

SUMMARY:

Although tetanus toxin is fixed by brain ganglioside, it is not fixed by a number of substances more or less closely related to brain ganglioside, or by naturally occurring brain ganglioside not containing hexosamine, or by a hexosamine-containing ganglioside from Tay-Sachs brain. Isolated brain gangliosides may vary considerably in their toxin-fixing capacities. In chloroform + methanol extracts of brain a number of gangliosides which differ in ability to fix toxin can be separated chromatographically. Complexes of ganglioside with phrenosine and sphingomyelin have diminished toxin-fixing capacity. Tetanus toxin and ganglioside have a high binding capacity for calcium, but calcium does not affect the fixation of toxin by ganglioside. Ganglioside fixes strychnine, brucine and thebaine, drugs which have the same neurophysiological activity as tetanus toxin. Ganglioside does not fix γ-aminobutyric acid, β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid, histamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline or dopamine, but it does fix serotonin and a number of related compounds. It has been confirmed that albumin is fixed to a small extent by ganglioside at low salt concentration, but (unlike tetanus toxin) this fixation is practically abolished at physiological salt concentration.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-31-3-375
1963-06-01
2021-08-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/31/3/mic-31-3-375.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-31-3-375&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barry G. T. 1958; Colominic acid, a polymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid. J. exp. Med. 107:507
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bernheimer A. W., van Heyningen W. E. 1961; The relation between the tetanus toxin-fixing and influenza virus-inhibiting properties of ganglioside. J. gen. Microbiol. 24:121
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Doery H. M., North E. A. 1961; The interaction of staphylococcal toxin and ganglioside. 1. Inactivation of the lethal effect of staphylococcal toxin in mice. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 39:333
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dombro R. S., Bradham L. S., Campbell N. K., Woolley D. W. 1961; Serotonin receptors. III. The role of salt formation. Biochim. biophys. Acta 54:516
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Eccles J. C. 1957 The physiology of nerve cells. London: Oxford University Press;
  6. Florey E. editor 1961 Nervous inhibition. Oxford: Pergamon Press;
  7. Gatt S. 1962; Chloroform soluble complexes of gangliosides with lipids and salts. Bull. Res. Counc. Israel IIA:90
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goodman L. S., Gilman A. 1960 The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: The Macmillan Company;
  9. Harris A. F., Saifer A., Volk B. W. 1960; Interaction of chlorpromazine with strandin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol., N.Y. 104:542
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hirsch K., Ahrens E. H. 1958; The separation of complex lipide mixtures by the use of silicic acid chromatography. J. biol. Chem. 233:311
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Klenk E., Gielen W. 1960; Zur Kenntnis der Ganglioside des Gehirns. Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 319:283
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Klenk E., Geelen W. 1961; Untersuchungen über die Konstitution der Ganglioside aus Menschengehirn und die Trennung des Gemisches in die Komponenten. Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 326:144
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kuhn R. 1960; Über die Ganglioside des Gehirns. Angew. Chem. 72:805
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kuhn R., Wiegandt H., Egge H. 1961; Zum Bauplan der Ganglioside. Angew. Chem. 73:580
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lüderitz O., Westphal O., Eichenberger E., Neter E. 1958; Über die Komplexbildung von bakteriellen Lipopolysacchariden mit Proteinen und Lipoiden. Biochem. Z. 330:21
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McIlwain H. 1961; Characterization of naturally occurring materials which restore excitability to isolated cerebral tissues. Biochem. J. 78:24
    [Google Scholar]
  17. North E. A., Doery Η. M. 1961; Inactivation of staphylococcal, tetanus and diphtheria toxins by ganglioside. Brit. J. exp. Path. 42:23
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rapport M. M., Norton W. T. 1962; Chemistry of the lipids. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 31:103
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Schachman H. K. 1959 Ultracentrifugatian in biochemistry. New York: Academic Press Inc;
  20. Sherrington C. 1947 Integrative action of the nervous system. Cambridge: University Press;
  21. Svennerholm L. 1956; The determination of hexosamines with special reference to nervous tissue. Acta Soc. Med. upsalien. 61:287
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Svennerholm L. 1957; Quantitative estimation of sialic acids. II. A colorimetric resorcinol-hydrochloric acid method. Biochim. biophys. Acta 24:604
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Udenfriend S., Weissbach H., Clark e. T. 1955; The estimation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (serotonin) in biological tissue. J. biol. Chem. 215:337
    [Google Scholar]
  24. van Heyningen W. E. 1959a; The fixation of tetanus toxin by nervous tissue. J. gen. Microbiol. 20:291
    [Google Scholar]
  25. van Heyningen W. E. 1959b; Chemical assay of the tetanus toxin receptor in nervous tissue. J. gen. Microbiol. 20:301
    [Google Scholar]
  26. van Heyningen W. E. 1959c; Tentative identification of the tetanus toxin receptor in nervous tissue. J. gen. Microbiol. 20:310
    [Google Scholar]
  27. van Heyningen W. E. 1961; The relation between the fixation and inactivation of tetanus toxin by ganglioside. Brit. J. exp. Path. 42:397
    [Google Scholar]
  28. van Heyningen W. E., Miller P. A. 1961; The fixation of tetanus toxin by ganglioside. J. gen. Microbiol. 24:107
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yamakawa T., Iree R., Iwanaga M. 1960; The chemistry of lipid of posthemolytic residue or stroma of erythrocytes. J. Biochem. 48:490
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-31-3-375
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-31-3-375
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error