1887

Abstract

SUMMARY:

The taxonomic position of organisms belonging to the rickettsiae and psittacosis-lymphogranuloma groups is controversial. Although, like viruses, all pathogenic forms of these organisms are obligate intracellular parasites, in other respects they resemble bacteria. Since a cell wall, deriving its rigidity from mucopeptide, which contains the amino sugar muramic acid as a key constituent, has so far only been found in bacteria and the closely related blue-green algae, the presence of muramic acid in an organism may be used as a taxonomic criterion. The mucopeptides of bacterial cell walls are also often sensitive to lysozyme, so that dissolution by this enzyme serves as an indication of the presence of mucopeptide. Organisms of the rickettsiae and psittacosis-lymphogranuloma groups have been examined for the presence of muramic acid. Critical chemical tests have shown that this substance is present in organisms of both groups. Cell walls of were dissolved by lysozyme. In the light of these and other results the taxonomic position of these groups of organisms is discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-30-3-469
1963-03-01
2021-07-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/30/3/mic-30-3-469.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-30-3-469&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Allison A. C., Armstkong J. A. 1960; Abnormal distribution of nucleic acids in tissue culture cells infected with polyoma virus. Brit. J. Cancer 14:313
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allison A. C., Burke D. C. 1962; The nucleic acid contents of viruses. J. gen. Microbiol. 27:181
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allison A. C., Perkins H. R. 1960; The presence of cell walls like those of bacteria in rickettsiae. Nature, hond. 188:796
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aminoff D., Morgan W. T. J., Watkins W. M. 1952; The action of dilute alkali on the N-acetylhexosamines and the specific blood-group mucoids. Biochem. J. 51:379
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Andrewes C. H. 1952; Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 6:119
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Andrewes C. H., Horstmann D. M. 1949; The susceptibility of viruses to ethyl ether. J. gen. Microbiol. 3:290
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Armstrong J. Α., Valentine R. C., Fildes F. C. 1963; Structure and replication of the trachoma agent in cell cultures as shown by electron microscopy. J. gen. Microbiol. 30:59
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker J. A. 1944; A virus causing pneumonia in cats and producing elementary bodies. J. exp. Med. 79:159
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Becker Y., Mashiah P., Bernkopf H. 1962; Biochemical changes in FL cell cultures infected with a trachoma agent. Nature, Lond. 193:271
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bedson S. P. 1959; The psittacosis-lymphogranuloma group of infective agents. J. roy. Soc. publ. Hlth 22:67
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berger L. R., Weiser R. S. 1957; The β-glucosaminidase activity of egg-white lysozyme. Biochim. biophys. Acta 26:517
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bovarnick M. R., Snyder J. C. 1949; Respiration of typhus rickettsiae. J. exp. Med. 89:561
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Clavero G., Perez-Gallardo F. 1943; Estudier experimental de una cepa apatógena e immunizante de Rickettsia prowazeki. Cepa E. Rev. Sanid Hig. Publ., Madr. 17:1
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cohen S. S. 1957 The biosynthesis of nucleic acids in some microbial systems. The Chemical Basis of Heredity651 McElroy W. D., Glass B. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Collins J. F., Richmond M. H. 1962; A structural similarity between N-acetyl-muramic acid and penicillin as a basis for antibiotic action. Nature, Lond. 195:142
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Crumpton M. J. 1959; Identification of amino-sugars. Biochem. J. 72:479
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cummins C. S., Harris H. 1956; The chemical composition of the cell walls in some Gram-positive bacteria and its possible value as a taxonomie character. J. gen. Microbiol. 14:583
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Davis G. E., Cox H. R. 1938; A filter-passing infectious agent isolated from ticks. Publ. Hlth Rep., Wash. 53:2259
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Derrick E. K., Brown H. G. 1949; Isolation of the Karp strain of Rickettsia tsu-tsugamushi. Lancet ii:150
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Donald H. B., Isaacs A. 1954; Counts of influenza virus particles. J. gen. Microbiol. 10:457
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Frank H., Lefort M., Martin H. H. 1962; Chemical analysis of a mucopolymer component in cell walls of the blue and green alga Phormidium uncinatum. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 7:322
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Glauert A. M., Brieger E. M., Allen J. M. 1961; The fine structure of vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis. Exp. Cell Res. 22:73
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hough L., Jones J. K. N., Wadman W. H. 1950; Quantitative analysis of mixtures of sugars by the method of partition chromatography. V. Improved methods for the separation and detection of their methylated derivatives on the paper chromatogram. J. chem. Soc.1702
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hurst E. W. 1953; Chemotherapy of virus diseases. Brit. med. Bull. 9:180
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jenkin H. M. 1960; Preparation and properties of cell walls of the agent of meningo-pneumonitis. J. Bact. 80:639
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kaplan C., Valentine R. C. 1959; The infectivity of purified and partially purified preparations of vaccinia and cowpox viruses. J. gen. Microbial. 20:612
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kuhn R., Krüger G. 1957; Das Chromogen III der Morgan-Elson-reaktion. Chem. Ber. 90:264
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Maxcy K. F. 1929; Endemic typhus fever of southeastern United States; reaction of guinea pig. Publ. Hlth Rep., Wash. 44:589
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Morgan W. T. J., Elson L. A. 1934; A colorimetric method for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylchondrosamine. Biochem. J. 28:988
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Partridge S. M. 1948; Filter-paper partition chromatography of sugars. I. General description and application to the qualitative analysis of sugars in apple juice, egg white and foetal blood of sheep. Biochem. J. 42:238
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Perkins H. R. 1960a; The structure of a disaccharide liberated by lysozyme from the cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Biochem. J. 74:182
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Perkins H. R. 1960b; Substances reacting as hexosamine and as JV-acetylhexosamine liberated from bacterial cell walls by lysozyme. Biochem. J. 74:186
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Perkins H. R., Rogers H. J. 1959; The products of the partial acid hydrolysis of the mucopeptide from cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Biochem. J. 72:647
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Plotz H., Smadel J. G., Anderson T. F., Chambers L. A. 1943; Morphological structure of rickettsiae. J. exp. Med. 77:355
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Pollard M., Moore R. W., Tanami Y., Starr J. J. 1961; Cytochemical studies with psittacosis virus by fluorescence microscopy. Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 19:343
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Price W. H. 1953; The epidemiology of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever I. The characterization of strain virulence of Rickettsia rickettsii. Amer. J. Hyg. 58:248
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Repaske R. 1958; Lysis of Gram-negative organisms and the role of versene. Biochim. biophys. Acta 30:225
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rich Μ. Α., Saslaw L., Eidinhoff M. L. 1960; Some differences among various mammalian cell lines in reversal of growth inhibition by 5-fluorouracil. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol., N. Y. 103:791
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rogers H. J. 1962 The mode of action of the penicillins. Ciba Study Group, no. 13: The Resistance of Bacteria to the Penicillins25 London: J. & A. Churchill;
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rogers H. J., Perkins H. R. 1960; 5-Fluorouracil and mucopeptide biosynthesis by Staphylococcus aureus. Biochem. J. 77:448
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rondle C. J. M., Morgan W. T. J. 1955; The determination of glucosamine and galactosamine. Biochem. J. 61:586
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Salton M. R. J., Ghuysen J. M. 1960; Acetylhexosamine compounds enzymically released from Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls. III. The structure of di- and tetra-saccharides released from cell walls by lysozyme and streptomyces Fx enzyme. Biochim. biophys. Acta 45:355
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Schaechter M., Bozeman F. M., Smadel J. G. 1957a; Study on the growth of rickettsiae. II. Morphologic observations on living rickettsiae in tissue culture cells. Virology 3:160
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Schaechter M., Tousimis A. J., Cohn Z. A., Rosen H., Campbell J., Hahn F. E. 1957b; Morphological, chemical and serological studies of the cell walls of Rickettsia mooseri (R. typhi). J. Bact. 74:822
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schäfer W. 1959; Some observations concerning the reproduction of RNA-containing animal viruses. Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol. 9:61
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Smadel J. E., Wall M. J., Gregg A. 1943; An outbreak of psittacosis in pigeons, involving the production of inclusion bodies, and transfer of the disease to man. J. exp. Med. 78:189
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Starr J. J., Pollard M., Tanami Y., Moore R. W. 1960; Cytochemical studies with psittacosis virus by fluorescence microscopy. Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 18:501
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Steinhaus E. A. 1946 Insect microbiology Ithaca: Comstock;
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Stoffyn J., Jeanloz R. W. 1954; Identification of amino sugars by paper chromatography. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 52:373
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Stoker M. R. P., Smith K. M., Fiset P. 1956; Internai structure of Rickettsia burnetii as shown by electron microscopy of thin sections. J. gen. Microbiol. 15:632
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Tajima M., Nomura Y., Kubota Y. 1957; Structure and development of the psitta-cosis-lymphogranuloma group observed in the electron microscope. J. Bact. 74:605
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tanami Y., Pollard M., Starr J. J. 1961; Replication pattern of psittacosis virus in a tissue culture system. Virology 15:22
    [Google Scholar]
  53. T’ang F. F., Chang H. C, Huang Y. T., Wang K. C. 1957; Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to the isolation of the virus in the chick embryo. Chinese Med. J. 75:429
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Westwood J. C. N., Phipps P. H., Boulter E. A. 1957; The titration of vaccinia virus on the chorio-allantoic membrane of the developing chick embryo. J. Hyg., Comb. 55:123
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wissig S. L., Caro L. G., Jackson G. B., Smadel J. E. 1956; Electron microscopic observations on intracellular rickettsiae. Amer. J. Path. 32:1117
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Work E. 1961; The mucopeptides of bacterial cell walls. A review. J. gen. Microbiol. 25:167
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Work E., Dewey D. L. 1953; The distribution of ae-diaminopimelic acid among various micro-organisms. J. gen. Microbiol. 9:394
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-30-3-469
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-30-3-469
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error