1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: When a standard suspension of Q1, an indicator strain sensitive to the type A phages recovered from lysogenic strains of this organism. was exposed to concentrations of these phages giving a phage:bacteria ratio of approximately 1:10 (thus ensuring that, with rare exceptions, bacteria became infected with single phage particles) it was found that definite percentages of the bacteria were either lysogenized or productively infected (lysed). These percentages were constant for each particular phage type, but varied widely in the 11 members of the group. It was concluded that each phage consisted of a mixed population of particles, some capable, as single infections, of producing lysogenization (α particles) and others lacking this property (β particles). An increase in the phage: bacteria ratio, resulting in multiple infections of single bacteria, led to an increase in lysogenization at the expense of productive infection. The number of α particles present in any particular concentration of phage was calculated from the figures determined at low phage:bacteria ratios (limit dilution). With some phages, when bacteria became infected with more than one particle by exposure to rising phage concentrations, the number lysogenized was compatible with the hypothesis that α particles are dominant over β particles, and that every bacterium infected by an α particle is lysogenized. This hypothesis was however invalidated by the fact that, with other phages, either the number of bacteria lysogenized was in excess of the available α particles, indicating that bacteria had been lysogenized by infection with two or more β particles, or the number of α particles was grossly in excess of the number of bacteria lysogenized. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Very high concentrations of these temperate phages produced lysis-from-without, and in some cases appeared to induce lysis of bacteria which had first been lysogenized. In all cases in which such experiments were carried out, exposure to low temperatures (20°), to high temperatures (42°), to the salts of certain organic acids, and to anaerobiosis had no significant effect on lysogenization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-26-3-443
1961-11-01
2021-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/26/3/mic-26-3-443.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-26-3-443&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams M. H. 1959 Bacteriophages New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrewes C. H., Elford W. J. 1932; The ‘killing’ of bacteria by bacteriophages. Brit. J. exp. Path 13:13
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bertani G., Nice S. J. 1954; Studies on lysogenesis. II. The effect of temperature on the lysogénisation of Shigella dysenteriae with phage Pl J. Bad 67:202
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bertani G. 1960; On the interpretation of Boyd’s ‘multiplicity effect’ in lysogénisation. Virology 12:132
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyd J. S. K. 1950; The symbiotic bacteriophages of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Path. Bact 62:501
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boyd J. S. K. 1951a; Mutation in a bacterial virus. Nature, Lond 168:994
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boyd J. S. K. 1951b; Observations on the relationship of symbiotic and lytic bacterio-phage. J. Path. Bact 63:445
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Boyd J. S. K. 1953; The role of mutation in the survival and multiplication of the bacterial viruses. In The Nature of Virus Multiplication Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol 2:119
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Boyd J. S. K. 1956; Immunity of lysogenic bacteria. Nature, Lond 178:141
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boyd J. S. K., Bidwell D. E. 1957; The type A phages of Salmonella typhimurium identification by a standardized cross-immunity test. J. gen. Microbiol 16:217
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hershey A. D., Kalmanson G. M., Bronfenbrenner J. 1943; Quantitative methods in the study of phage-antiphage reaction. J. Immunol 46:267
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kaiser A. D. 1957; Mutations in a temperate bacteriophage affecting its ability to lysogenise Escherichia coli. Virology 3:42
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Levine M. 1957; Mutations in the temperate phage P22 and lysogeny in Salmonella. Virology 3:22
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lieb M. 1953; The establishment of lysogenicity in Escherichia coli. J. Bact 65:642
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Liu P. V. 1958; Cellophane plate technique applied to the production of Bacteriophage. Amer. J. clin. Path 29:176
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lwoff A. 1953; Lysogeny. Bact. Rev 17:269
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lwoff A., Kaplan A. S., Ritz E. 1954; Recherches sur la lysogénization de Salmonella typhimurium. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 86:127
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Parry W. R., Edwards J. 1953; The induction of lysogenesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J. gen. Microbiol 9:342
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Prell H. H., Prell H. H. M. 1959; The influence of multiplicity of infection on lysogénisation in the Salmonella typhimurium system—phage P22. Arch. Mikrobiol 34:211
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Puck T. T., Lee H. H. 1954; Mechanism of cell wall penetration by viruses. I. An increase in host-cell permeability induced by bacteriophage infection J. exp. Med 99:481
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-26-3-443
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-26-3-443
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error