1887

Abstract

The entomopathogen secretes many proteins during the late stages of insect larvae infection and during laboratory culture. The authors have previously characterized and purified a 55 kDa zinc metalloprotease, PrtA, from culture supernatants of . PrtA is secreted via a classical type I secretory pathway and is encoded within the operon . The 405 bp gene encodes a 148 kDa pre-protein that is translocated to the periplasm by the classical signal-peptide-dependent pathway, yielding the mature 119 kDa inhibitor Inh. Inh is a specific inhibitor of the protease PrtA. This study describes the purification of Inh and the initial characterization of its protease inhibition properties.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-8-2427
2002-08-01
2021-10-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/148/8/1482427a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-8-2427&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahn J. H., Pan J. G., Rhee J. S. 1999; Identification of the tliDEF ABC transporter specific for lipase in Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1. J Bacteriol 181:1847–1852
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bae K. H., Kim I. C., Kim K. S., Shin Y. C., Byun S. M. 1998; The Leu-3 residue of Serratia marcescens metalloprotease inhibitor is important in inhibitory activity and binding with Serratia marcescens metalloprotease. Arch Biochem Biophys 352:37–43 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baumann U., Bauer M., Letoffe S., Delepelaire P., Wandersman C. 1995; Crystal structure of a complex between Serratia marcescens metallo-protease and an inhibitor from Erwinia chrysanthemi . J Mol Biol 248:653–661 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Braunagel S. C., Benedik M. J. 1990; The metalloprotease gene of Serratia marcescens strain SM6. Mol Gen Genet 222:446–451 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brechtl J. R., Breitbart W., Galietta M., Krivo S., Rosenfeld B. 2001; The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with advanced HIV infection: impact on medical, palliative care, and quality of life outcomes. J Pain Symptom Manage 21:41–51 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Burgos F., Torres A., Gonzalez J., Puig de la Bellacasa J., Rodriguez-Roisin R., Roca J. 1996; Bacterial colonization as a potential source of nosocomial respiratory infections in two types of spirometer. Eur Respir J 9:2612–2617 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chabeaud P., de Groot A., Bitter W., Tommassen J., Heulin T., Achouak W. 2001; Phase-variable expression of an operon encoding extracellular alkaline protease, a serine protease homolog, and lipase in Pseudomonas brassicacearum . J Bacteriol 183:2117–2120 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chen G., Zhang Y., Li J., Dunphy G. B., Punja Z. K., Webster J. M. 1996; Chitinase activity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species, bacterial associates of entomopathogenic nematodes. J Invertebr Pathol 68:101–108 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dahler G. S., Barras F., Keen N. T. 1990; Cloning of genes encoding extracellular metalloproteases from Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. J Bacteriol 172:5803–5815
    [Google Scholar]
  10. de Bentzmann S., Polette M., Zahm J. M. 7 other authors 2000; Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors delay airway epithelial wound repair by altering the actin cytoskeleton and inducing overactivation of epithelial matrix metalloproteinase-2. Lab Invest 80:209–219 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dubey L., Krasinski K., Hernanz-Schulman M. 1988; Osteomyelitis secondary to trauma or infected contiguous soft tissue. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7:26–34 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Duong F., Lazdunski A., Cami B., Murgier M. 1992; Sequence of a cluster of genes controlling synthesis and secretion of alkaline protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa : relationships to other secretory pathways. Gene 121:47–54 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Feltzer R. E., Gray R. D., Dean W. L., Pierce W. M. Jr 2000; Alkaline proteinase inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Interaction of native and N-terminally truncated inhibitor proteins with Pseudomonas metalloproteinases. J Biol Chem 275:21002–21009 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fischer-Le Saux M., Viallard V., Brunel B., Normand P., Boemare N. E. 1999; Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P.luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp.nov . , P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov.,P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp.nov., P . temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp.nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:1645–1656 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Forst S., Nealson K. 1996; Molecular biology of the symbiotic-pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. Microbiol Rev 60:21–43
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Forst S., Dowds B., Boemare N., Stackebrandt E. 1997; Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs that kill bugs. Annu Rev Microbiol 51:47–72 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gebbia J. A., Coleman J. L., Benach J. L. 2001; Borrelia spirochetes upregulate release and activation of matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9) and collagenase 1 (MMP-1) in human cells. Infect Immun 69:456–462 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guzzo J., Murgier M., Filloux A., Lazdunski A. 1990; Cloning of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease gene and secretion of the protease into the medium by Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 172:942–948
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Guzzo J., Duong F., Wandersman C., Murgier M., Lazdunski A. 1991a; The secretion genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease are functionally related to those of Erwinia chrysanthemi proteases and Escherichia coli α-haemolysin. Mol Microbiol 5:447–453 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Guzzo J., Pages J. M., Duong F., Lazdunski A., Murgier M. 1991b; Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease: evidence for secretion genes and study of secretion mechanism. J Bacteriol 173:5290–5297
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hammond S. E., Hanna P. C. 1998; Lethal factor active-site mutations affect catalytic activity in vitro . Infect Immun 66:2374–2378
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hanna P. 1999; Lethal toxin actions and their consequences. J Appl Microbiol 87:285–287 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hege T., Feltzer R. E., Gray R. D., Baumann U. 2001; Crystal structure of a complex between Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and its cognate inhibitor: inhibition by a zinc–NH2 coordinative bond. J Biol Chem 276:35087–35092 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Herouy Y. 2001; Matrix metalloproteinases in skin pathology (Review. Int J Mol Med 7:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hsueh P. R., Teng L. J., Pan H. J., Chen Y. C., Sun C. C., Ho S. W., Luh K. T. 1998; Outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteremia among oncology patients. J Clin Microbiol 36:2914–2917
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hynes W. L., Dixon A. R., Walton S. L., Aridgides L. J. 2000; The extracellular hyaluronidase gene ( hylA ) of Streptococcus pyogenes . FEMS Microbiol Lett 184:109–112 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kawai E., Idei A., Kumura H., Shimazaki K., Akatsuka H., Omori K. 1999; The ABC-exporter genes involved in the lipase secretion are clustered with the genes for lipase, alkaline protease, and serine protease homologues in Pseudomonas fluorescens no. 33. Biochim Biophys Acta 1446:377–382 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kling J. J., Wright R. L., Moncrief J. S., Wilkins T. D. 1997; Cloning and characterization of the gene for the metalloprotease enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis . FEMS Microbiol Lett 146:279–284 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Laemmli U. K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Letoffe S., Delepelaire P., Wandersman C. 1989; Characterization of a protein inhibitor of extracellular proteases produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi . Mol Microbiol 3:79–86 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Letoffe S., Delepelaire P., Wandersman C. 1990; Protease secretion by Erwinia chrysanthemi : the specific secretion functions are analogous to those of Escherichia coli α-haemolysin. EMBO J 9:1375–1382
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Letoffe S., Delepelaire P., Wandersman C. 1991; Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the Serratia marcescens metalloprotease gene: secretion of the protease from E. coli in the presence of the Erwinia chrysanthemi protease secretion functions. J Bacteriol 173:2160–2166
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Liao C. H., McCallus D. E. 1998; Biochemical and genetic characterization of an extracellular protease from Pseudomonas fluorescens CY091. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:914–921
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Maniatis T., Fritsch E. F., Sambrook J. 1982 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Marits R., Koiv V., Laasik E., Mae A. 1999; Isolation of an extracellular protease gene of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain SCC3193 by transposon mutagenesis and the role of protease in phytopathogenicity. Microbiology 145:1959–1966 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Moncrief J. S., Obiso R. Jr, Barroso L. A., Kling J. J., Wright R. L., Van Tassell R. L., Lyerly D. M., Wilkins T. D. 1995; The enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis is a metalloprotease. Infect Immun 63:175–181
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nakahama K., Yoshimura K., Marumoto R., Kikuchi M., Lee I. S., Hase T., Matsubara H. 1986; Cloning and sequencing of Serratia protease gene. Nucleic Acids Res 14:5843–5855 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Olson J. C., Ohman D. E. 1992; Efficient production and processing of elastase and LasA by Pseudomonas aeruginosa require zinc and calcium ions. J Bacteriol 174:4140–4147
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ong K. L., Chang F. N. 1997; Analysis of proteins from different phase variants of the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens by two-dimensional zymography. Electrophoresis 18:834–839 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Peel M. M., Alfredson D. A., Gerrard J. G., Davis J. M., Robson J. M., McDougall R. J., Scullie B. L., Akhurst R. J. 1999; Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of strains of Photorhabdus luminescens from infected humans in Australia. J Clin Microbiol 37:3647–3653
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Poyart C., Abachin E., Razafimanantsoa I., Berche P. 1993; The zinc metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes is required for maturation of phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C: direct evidence obtained by gene complementation. Infect Immun 61:1576–1580
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Raveneau J., Geoffroy C., Beretti J. L., Gaillard J. L., Alouf J. E., Berche P. 1992; Reduced virulence of a Listeria monocytogenes phospholipase-deficient mutant obtained by transposon insertion into the zinc metalloprotease gene. Infect Immun 60:916–921
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tonello F., Morante S., Rossetto O., Schiavo G., Montecucco C. 1996; Tetanus and botulism neurotoxins: a novel group of zinc-endopeptidases. Adv Exp Med Biol 389:251–260
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Travis J., Potempa J. 2000; Bacterial proteinases as targets for the development of second-generation antibiotics. Biochim Biophys Acta 1477:35–50 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Vehmaan-Kreula P., Puolakkainen M., Sarvas M., Welgus H. G., Kovanen P. T. 2001; Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins induce secretion of the 92-kDa gelatinase by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:E1–8 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wang H., Dowds B. C. 1993; Phase variation in Xenorhabdus luminescens : cloning and sequencing of the lipase gene and analysis of its expression in primary and secondary phases of the bacterium. J Bacteriol 175:1665–1673
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wee K. E., Yonan C. R., Chang F. N. 2000; A new broad-spectrum protease inhibitor from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens . Microbiology 146:3141–3147
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Welch R. A. 1991; Pore-forming cytolysins of Gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol 5:521–528 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yoshihara K., Matsushita O., Minami J., Okabe A. 1994; Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the colH gene from Clostridium histolyticum encoding a collagenase and a gelatinase. J Bacteriol 176:6489–6496
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zhang Y., Bak D. D., Heid H., Geider K. 1999; Molecular characterization of a protease secreted by Erwinia amylovora . J Mol Biol 289:1239–1251 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-8-2427
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-8-2427
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error