1887

Abstract

Bile-tolerant spp. are emerging human and animal pathogens. However, due to their fastidious nature, which requires nutrient-rich complex media to grow, infection with these bacteria may be underestimated. The accumulation of toxic metabolites in cultures may be one of the main obstacles for successful culture of these organisms. The present study examined various potential growth-enhancing substances for spp. and, furthermore, how they may affect spiral to coccoid conversion. Five spp. were cultured on agar and in broth media supplemented with activated charcoal, β-cyclodextrin, or porcine gastric mucin. Growth was determined by estimating the numbers of colony-forming units and colony diameter, as well as bacterial cell mass. Coccoid transformation was estimated every 24 h by both Gram and acridine-orange staining. Activated charcoal was superior in supporting growth and increased cell mass on agar and in broth media. β-Cyclodextrin delayed spiral to coccoid conversion by and , whereas activated charcoal delayed the conversion to coccoid forms of and . The progression to coccoid forms by on agar media was not influenced by any growth supplement. The spiral to coccoid conversion was more rapid in broth media than on agar media. The growth enhancement observed is probably related to the capacity of activated charcoal to remove toxic compounds in culture media.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-3-677
2002-03-01
2020-04-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/148/3/1480677a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-3-677&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barer M. R., Gribbon L. T., Harwood C. R., Nwoguh C. E.. 1993; The viable but non-culturable hypothesis and medical bacteriology. Rev Med Microbiol4:183–191[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Benaissa M., Babin P., Quellard N., Pezennec L., Cenatiempo Y., Faucher J. L.. 1996; Changes in Helicobacter pylori ultrastructure and antigens during conversion from the bacillary to coccoid form. Infect Immun64:2331–2335
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bradshaw D. J., Homer K. A., Marsh P. D., Beighton D.. 1994; Metabolic cooperation in oral microbial communities growth on mucin. Microbiology140:3407–3412[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buck G. E., Smith J. S.. 1987; Medium supplementation for growth of Campylobacter pyloridis. J Clin Microbiol25:597–599
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cellini L., Allocati N., Di-Campli E., Dainelli B.. 1994; Helicobacter pylori : a fickle germ. Microbiol Immunol38:25–30[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chan W. Y., Hui P. K., Leung K. M., Chow J., Kwok F., Ng C.-S.. 1994; Coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach. Am J Pathol102:503–507
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Costa K., Bacher G., Allmaier G., Dominguez-Bello M. G., Engstrand L., Falk P., Garcia-del Portillo F., de Pedro M. A.. 1999; The morphological transition of Helicobacter pylori cells from spiral to coccoid is preceded by a substantial modification of the cell wall. J Bacteriol181:3710–3715
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coudron P., Statton C. W.. 1995; Factors effect growth and susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori in liquid media. J Clin Microbiol33:1028–1030
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Donelli G., Matarrese P., Fiorentini C., Dainelli B., Taraborelli T., Di Campli E., Di Bartolomeo S., Cellini L.. 1998; The effect of oxygen on the growth and cell morphology of Helicobacter pylori . FEMS Microbiol Lett168:9–15[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Eaton K. A., Dewhirst F. E., Radin M. J., Fox J. G., Paster B. J., Krakowka S., Morgan D. R.. 1993; Helicobacter acinonyx sp. nov., isolated from cheetahs with gastritis. Int J Syst Microbiol43:99–106
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Edelstein P. H., Edelstein M. A. C.. 1993; Comparison of three buffers used in the formation of buffer charcoal yeast extract medium. J Clin Microbiol31:3329–3330
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ermolaeva S., Belyi Y., Tartakovskii I.. 1999; Characteristics of induction of virulence factor expression by activated charcoal in Listeria monocytogenes . FEMS Microbiol Lett174:137–141[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Forman D.. 1996; Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol251:48–51
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fox J. G., Yan L., Dewhirst F. E., Paster B. J., Shames B., Murphy J. C., Hayward A., Belcher J. C., Mendes E. N.. 1995; Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, liver, and intestine of aged inbred mice. J Clin Microbiol33:445–454
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fox J. G., Drolet R., Higgins R., Messier S., Yan L., Coleman B. E., Paster P. J., Dewhirst F. E.. 1996; Helicobacter canis isolated from dog liver with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. J Clin Microbiol34:2479–2482
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fox J. G., Dewhirst F. E., Shen Z.. 8 other authors 1998; Hepatic Helicobacter species identified in bile and gallbladder tissues in Chileans with chronic cholecystitis. Gastroenterology114:755–767[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Franklin C. L., Beckwith C. S., Livingston R. S., Riley L. K., Gibson S. V., Besch-Williford C. V., Hook R. R.. 1996; Isolation of a novel Helicobacter cholecystus sp. from the gallbladder of Syrian hamsters with cholangiofibrosis and centrilobular pancreatitis. J Clin Microbiol4:2952–2958
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodwin C. S., Mendall M. M., Northfield T. C.. 1997; Helicobacter pylori infection. Lancet349:265–269[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hazell S. L., Markesich D. C., Evans D. J., Graham D. Y.. 1989; Influence of media supplements on growth and survival of Campylobacter pylori . Eur J Microbiol8:597–602[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoppe J. E., Schwaderer J.. 1989; Comparison of four media for the isolation of Bordetella pertussis . J Clin Microbiol27:1097–1098
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Issam R., Rand K., Gaskins D.. 1990; Buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for the isolation of Brucella. . J Clin Microbiol28:1671–1672
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jalava K., Kartinen M., Utriainen M., Haponen I., Hänninen M. I.. 1997; Helicobacter salomonis sp. nov., a canine gastric Helicobacter sp. related to Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter bizzozeronii . Int J Syst Bacteriol47:975–982[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kusters J. G., Gerrits M. M., Van Strijp J. A. G., Vandenbroucke-Grauls C. M. J. E.. 1997; Coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori are the morphologic manifestation of cell death. Infect Immun65:3672–3679
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lee A., Phillips M. W., O’Rourke J. L.. 7 other authors 1992; Helicobacter muridarum sp. nov., a microaerophilic helical bacterium with a novel ultrastructure isolated from intestinal mucosa of rodents. Int J Syst Bacteriol42:27–36[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Marchini A., d’Apolito M., Massari P., Atzeni M., Copass M., Olivieri R.. 1995; Cyclodextrins for growth of Helicobacter pylori and production of vacuolating cytotoxin. Arch Microbiol164:290–293[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Moran A. P.. 1997; Coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori . Helicobacter2:109–110
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Moran A. P., Upton M. E.. 1986; A comparative study of the rod and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428. J Appl Bacteriol60:103–110[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Moran A. P., Upton M. E.. 1987a; Effect of medium supplements, illumination and superoxide dismutase on the production of coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428. J Appl Bacteriol62:43–51[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Moran A. P., Upton M. E.. 1987b; Factors affecting production of coccoid forms by Campylobacter jejuni on solid media during incubation. J Appl Bacteriol62:527–537[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Narikawa S., Kawai S., Aoshima H., Kawamata O., Kawaguchi R., Hikiji K., Kato M., Iino S., Mizushima Y.. 1997; Comparison of the nucleic acids of helical and coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori . Clin Diagn Lab Immunol4:285–290
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nilsson H.-O., Taneera J., Castedal M., Glatz E., Olsson R., Wadström T.. 2000a; Identification of Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species by PCR, hybridization and partial DNA sequencing in human liver samples from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis or primer biliary cirrhosis. J Clin Microbiol38:1072–1076
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nilsson I., Lindgren S., Eriksson S., Wadström T.. 2000b; Serum antibodies to Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter pylori in patients with liver disease. Gut46:410–414[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Norris C. R., Marks S. L., Eaton K. A., Torabian S. Z., Munn R. J., Solnick J. V.. 1999; Healthy cats are commonly colonized with Helicobacter heilmannii that is associated with minimal gastritis. J Clin Microbiol37:189–194
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Roberton A. M., Stanley R. A.. 1982; In vitro utilization of mucin by Bacteroides fragilis . Appl Environ Microbiol43:325–330
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shahamat M., Mai H. E. U., Paszko-Kolva C., Yamamoto H., Colwell R. R.. 1991; Evaluation of liquid media for growth of Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Microbiol29:2835–2837
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Signoretto C., Tafi M. C., Canepari P., del Mar Lleo M.. 2000; Cell wall chemical composition of Enterococcus faecalis in the viable but non-culturable state. Appl Environ Microbiol66:1953–1959[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Soltesz V. L., Mårdh P.. 1980; Serum free liquid media for Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Curr Microbiol4:45–49[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Soltesz V., Zeeberg B., Wadström T.. 1992; Optimal survival of Helicobacter pylori under various transport conditions. J Clin Microbiol30:1453–1456
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Stanley J., Linton D., Burnens A. P., Dewhirst F. E., On S. L., Porter A., Owen R. J., Costas M.. 1994; Helicobacter pullorum sp. nov., genotype and phenotype of a new species isolated from poultry and from humans with gastroenteritis. Microbiology140:3441–3449[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Versalovic J., Fox J. G.. 2001; Taxonomy and phylogeny of Helicobacter . In Helicobacter pylori: Molecular and Cellular Biology pp15–28 Edited by Achtman M.. Suerbaum S.. Wymondham, Norfolk, England: Horizon Scientific Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Walsh E. J., Moran A. P.. 1997; Influence of medium composition on the growth and antigen expression of Helicobacter pylori . J Appl Microbiol83:67–75[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ward J. M., Fox J. G., Anver M. B., Haines D. C., George C. V., Collins M. L.. 1994; Chronic active hepatitis and associated liver tumours in mice caused by persistent bacterial infection with a novel Helicobacter species. J Natl Cancer Inst86:1222–1227[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. West A. P., Millar M. R., Tompkins D. S.. 1990; Survival of Helicobacter pylori in water and saline. J Clin Pathol43:409
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Worku M. L., Sidebotham R. L., Walker M. M., Keshavarz T., Karim Q. N.. 1999; The relationship between Helicobacter pylori motility, morphology and phase of growth: implications for gastric colonization and pathology. Microbiology145:2803–2811
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-3-677
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-3-677
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error