1887

Abstract

Chlamydial infection has been associated with myocarditis in animals and humans. However, the mechanism resulting in myocarditis following infection is not known. Here, evidence is presented that both and can infect and replicate in myocytes isolated from neonate rats. The infected myocytes contained chlamydial inclusions, indicative of chlamydial growth, and infectious particles were recovered from the infected myocytes. It was also found that chlamydial infection at a late stage induced significant damage to the infected myocytes, as evidenced by an increased lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species production and a reduced ATP level. However, no nuclear apoptosis was detected in the infected myocytes. Collectively, these observations have demonstrated that spp. are able to both infect and damage myocytes, suggesting a potential role of chlamydial infection in myocarditis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-12-3955
2002-12-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/148/12/1483955a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-12-3955&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bachmaier, K., Neu, N., de la Maza, L. M., Pal, S., Hessel, A. & Penninger, J. M. ( 1999; ). Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. Science 283, 1335-1339.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bergmeyer, H. U. & Bernt, E. ( 1974; ). Lactate dehydrogenase UV-assay with pyruvate and NADH. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis , pp. 574-578. Edited by H. U. Bergmeyer. New York, NY:Academic Press.
  3. Blessing, E., Lin, T. M., Campbell, L. A., Rosenfeld, M. E., Lloyd, D. & Kuo, C. ( 2000; ). Chlamydia pneumoniae induces inflammatory changes in the heart and aorta of normocholesterolemic C57BL/6J mice. Infect Immun 68, 4765-4768.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blessing, E., Campbell, L. A., Rosenfeld, M. E., Chough, N. & Kuo, C. C. ( 2001; ). Chlamydia pneumoniae infection accelerates hyperlipidemia induced atherosclerotic lesion development in C57BL/6J mice. Atherosclerosis 158, 13-17.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Diaz, F. & Collazos, J. ( 1997; ). Myopericarditis due to Chlamydia psittaci. The role of autoimmunity. Scand J Infect Dis 29, 93-94.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Elmadhoun, B. M., Wang, G. Q., Kirshenbaum, L. A. & Burczynski, F. J. ( 2001; ). Palmitate uptake by neonatal rat myocytes and hepatocytes. Role of extracellular protein. Eur J Biochem 268, 3145-3153.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fan, T., Lu, H., Hu, H., Shi, L., McClarty, G. A., Nance, D. M., Greenberg, A. H. & Zhong, G. ( 1998; ). Inhibition of apoptosis in Chlamydia-infected cells: blockade of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. J Exp Med 187, 487-496.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fan, Y., Wang, S. & Yang, X. ( 1999; ). Chlamydia trachomatis (mouse pneumonitis strain) induces cardiovascular pathology following respiratory tract infection. Infect Immun 67, 6145-6151.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fong, I. W., Chiu, B., Viira, E., Jang, D. & Mahony, J. B. ( 1999; ). De novo induction of atherosclerosis by Chlamydia pneumoniae in a rabbit model. Infect Immun 67, 6048-6055.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gaydos, C. A., Summersgill, J. T., Sahney, N. N., Ramirez, J. A. & Quinn, T. C. ( 1996; ). Replication of Chlamydia pneumoniae in vitro in human macrophages, endothelial cells, and aortic artery smooth muscle cells. Infect Immun 64, 1614-1620.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gnarpe, H., Gnarpe, J., Gastrin, B. & Hallander, H. ( 1997; ). Chlamydia pneumoniae and myocarditis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 104, 50-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Grayston, J. T. ( 2000; ). What is needed to prove that Chlamydia pneumoniae does, or does not, play an etiologic role in atherosclerosis? J Infect Dis 181 Suppl. 3, S585–S586.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hu, H., Pierce, G. N. & Zhong, G. ( 1999; ). The atherogenic effects of Chlamydia are dependent on serum cholesterol and specific to Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Clin Invest 103, 747-753.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kalayoglu, M. V., Indrawati, Morrison, R. P., Morrison, S. G., Yuan, Y. & Byrne, G. I. ( 2000; ). Chlamydial virulence determinants in atherogenesis: the role of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and heat shock protein 60 in macrophage–lipoprotein interactions. J Infect Dis 181 Suppl. 3, S483–S489.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Laurila, A., Bloigu, A., Nayha, S., Hassi, J., Leinonen, M. & Saikku, P. ( 1997; ). Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with a serum lipid profile known to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 2910-2913.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Liu, L., Hu, H., Ji, H., Murdin, A. D., Pierce, G. N. & Zhong, G. ( 2000; ). Chlamydia pneumoniae infection significantly exacerbates aortic atherosclerosis in an LDLR−/− mouse model within six months. Mol Cell Biochem 215, 123-128.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Schinkel, A. F., Bax, J. J., van der Wall, E. E. & Jonkers, G. J. ( 2000; ). Echocardiographic follow-up of Chlamydia psittaci myocarditis. Chest 117, 1203-1205.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Swift, L. M. & Sarvazyan, N. ( 2000; ). Localization of dichlorofluorescin in cardiac myocytes: implications for assessment of oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 278, H982-H990.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Wesslen, L., Pahlson, C., Friman, G., Fohlman, J., Lindquist, O. & Johansson, C. ( 1992; ). Myocarditis caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) and sudden unexpected death in a Swedish elite orienteer. Lancet 340, 427-428.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Zhong, G., Fan, P., Ji, H., Dong, F. & Huang, Y. ( 2001; ). Identification of a chlamydial protease-like activity factor responsible for the degradation of host transcription factors. J Exp Med 193, 935-942.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-12-3955
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-12-3955
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error