1887

Abstract

BALB/c mice exposed intranasally (i.n.), intradermally (i.d.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) to low doses of (20 c.f.u. at three different times two weeks apart) showed an increased resistance to a subsequent high-dose (10 c.f.u.) infection. I.n.-exposed mice had few mycobacteria in the tissues (>100 c.f.u.) and showed an expansion of CD4 T cells associated with overproduction of IL-12 and IFN-γ, but not IL-4 and IgG antibodies. Parenterally (i.p. and i.d.) exposed animals showed c.f.u. numbers higher than i.n.-exposed mice, together with overproduction of IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-4 in the case of i.p.-exposed mice, and of IL-12, IFN-γ and IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies in the case of i.d.-exposed mice. Low-dose exposures were not contained by athymic BALB/c nude mice; however, naive nude mice reconstituted with i.n.-primed CD4 T cells of BALB/c mice were protected against high-dose infection, indicating that CD4 T cells are essential to control even low-dose infections by . Overall, these data suggest that continuous i.n. exposure to doses commonly found in the environment may play a role in determining the natural resistance of normal hosts against this organism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-10-3173
2002-10-01
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/148/10/1483173a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-10-3173&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Appelberg, R., Castro, A. G., Pedrosa, J., Silva, R. A., Orme, J. M. & Minoprio, P. ( 1995; ). Role of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha during T-cell-independent and -dependent phases of Mycobacterium avium infection. Infect Immun 62, 3962-3971.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bretscher, P., Menon, J., Power, C., Uzonna, J. & Wei, G. ( 2001; ). A case for a neonatal, low-dose BCG vaccination trial. Scand J Infect Dis 33, 253-257.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown, D. H., Miles, B. A. & Zwilling, B. S. ( 1995; ). Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BCG-resistant and -susceptible mice: establishment of latency and reactivation. Infect Immun 63, 2243-2247.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chambers, M. A., Williams, A., Gavier-Widen, D., Whelan, A., Hughes, C., Hall, G., Lever, M. S., Marsh, P. D. & Hewinson, R. G. ( 2001; ). A guinea pig model of low-dose Mycobacterium bovis aerogenic infection. Vet Microbiol 80, 213-226.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chin, D. P., Hopewell, P. C., Yajko, D. M. & 9 other authors ( 1994; ). Mycobacterium avium complex in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and the risk of M. avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 169, 289–295.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cooper, A. M., Callahan, J. E., Griffin, J. P., Roberts, A. D. & Orme, I. M. ( 1995; ). Old mice are able to control low-dose aerogenic infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun 63, 3259-3265.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Corti, A., Fattorini, L., Thoresen, O. F., Ricci, M. L., Gallizia, A., Pelagi, M., Li, Y. & Orefici, G. ( 1999; ). Upregulation of p75 tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor in Mycobacterium avium-infected mice: evidence for a functional role. Infect Immun 11, 5762-5767.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Eaton, T., Falkinham, J. O.III & von Reyn, C. F. ( 1995; ). Recovery of Mycobacterium avium from cigarettes. J Clin Microbiol 33, 2757-2758.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Emoto, M., Emoto, Y. & Kaufmann, S. H. ( 1997; ). CD8 αβ+ TCR αβintermediate lymphocytes expressing skewed TCRVβ repertoire in the liver of aged athymic nu/nu mice. J Immunol 158, 1041-1050.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Falkinham, J. O.III ( 1996; ). Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev 9, 177-215.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Falkinham, J. O.III, Norton, C. D. & LeChevallier, M. W. ( 2001; ). Factors influencing numbers of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and other mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 1225-1231.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fattorini, L., Xiao, Y., Ausiello, C. M., Urbani, F., LaSala, A., Mattei, M. & Orefici, G. ( 1996; ). Late acquisition of hyporesponsiveness to Mycobacterium avium-infected human macrophages in producing tumor necrosis factor-α but not interleukin-1β and -6. J Infect Dis 173, 1030-1033.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hakim, A., Hisam, N. & Reuman, P. D. ( 1993; ). Environmental mycobacterial peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis: three cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 16, 426-431.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Horshburgh, C. R.Jr ( 1996; ). Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex. In Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection. Progress in Research and Treatment , pp. 1-22. Edited by J. A. Korvick & C. A. Benson. New York:Marcel Dekker.
  15. Inderlied, C. B., Kemper, C. A. & Bermudez, L. E. M. ( 1993; ). The Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin Microbiol Rev 6, 266-310.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kobayashi, K., Kasama, T., Yamazaki, J., Hosaka, M., Katsura, T., Mochizuki, T., Soejima, K. & Nakamura, R. M. ( 1995; ). Protection of mice from Mycobacterium avium infection by recombinant interleukin-12. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39, 1369-1371.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mencacci, A., Spaccapelo, R., Del Sero, G., Enssle, K. H., Cassone, A., Bistoni, F. & Romani, L. ( 1996; ). CD4+ T-helper-cell responses in mice with low-level Candida albicans infection. Infect Immun 64, 4907-4914.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Menon, J. N. & Bretscher, P. A. ( 1998; ). Parasite dose determines the Th1/Th2 nature of the response to Leishmania major independently of infection route and strain of host or parasite. Eur J Immunol 28, 4020-4028.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Middleton, A. M., Chadwick, M. V., Nicholson, A. G., Dewar, A., Groger, R. K., Brown, E. J. & Wilson, R. ( 2000; ). The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa. Mol Microbiol 38, 381-391.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nagabhushanam, V. & Cheers, C. ( 2001; ). Non-major histocompatibility complex control of antibody isotype and Th1 versus Th2 cytokines during experimental infection of mice with Mycobacterium avium. Infect Immun 69, 1708-1713.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Noguchi, H., Hiruma, M., Kawada, A., Fujimoto, N., Fujioka, A. & Ishibashi, A. ( 1998; ). A pediatric case of atypical Mycobacterium avium infection of the skin. J Dermatol 25, 384-390.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pantelouris, E. M. ( 1968; ). Absence of thymus in a mouse mutant. Nature 27, 370.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Perlino, C. A. ( 1993; ). Mycobacterium avium complex: an unusual cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Infect Dis 17, 1083-1084.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Power, C. A., Wei, G. & Bretscher, P. A. ( 1998; ). Mycobacterial dose defines the Th1/Th2 nature of the immune response independently of whether immunization is administered by the intravenous, subcutaneous, or intradermal route. Infect Immun 66, 5743-5750.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Saunders, B. M. & Cheers, C. ( 1995; ). Inflammatory response following intranasal infection with Mycobacterium avium complex: role of T-cell subsets and gamma interferon. Infect Immun 63, 2282-2287.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Saunders, B. M., Frank, A. A., Cooper, A. M. & Orme, I. M. ( 1998; ). Role of γδ T cells in immunopathology of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection in mice. Infect Immun 66, 5508-5514.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Silva, R. A., Florido, M. & Appelberg, R. ( 2001; ). Interleukin-12 primes CD4+ T cells for interferon-γ production and protective immunity during Mycobacterium avium infection. Immunology 103, 368-374.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Smith, M. J. & Grange, J. M. ( 1989; ). Deep tissue infections due to environmental mycobacteria. In The Biology of the Mycobacteria , pp. 511-564. Edited by C. Ratledge, J. Stanford & J. M. Grange. New York:Academic Press.
  29. von Reyn, C. F., Waddel, R. D., Eaton, T. & 10 other authors ( 1993; ). Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. J Clin Microbiol 31, 3227–3230.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-10-3173
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-10-3173
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error