1887

Abstract

Different pleiotropic transcriptional regulators are known to function in the coordination of regulons concerned with carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and iron metabolism, but how expression profiles of these different regulons are coordinated with each other is not known. The basis for the effects of mutations on carbon utilization in and was examined. mutations affected the utilization of some carbon sources more than others and these effects could be partially, but not completely, reversed by the inclusion of cysteine or djenkolate in the growth medium. Assays of transport systems and enzymes concerned with glucitol and alanine utilization showed that these activities were depressed in mutants relative to isogenic wild-type strains, and cysteine or djenkolate present in the growth media partially restored these activities. Using transcriptional fusions to the (formate dehydrogenase) and (glucitol) operons, it was shown that decreased expression resulted from defects at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the effects of loss of CysB were much less pronounced under conditions of catabolite repression than in the absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source, and cAMP largely reversed the effect of the loss of CysB. Comparable effects were seen for gene expression under the control of its own native promoter, and sulfur limitation in a mutant depressed net cAMP production in a cAMP phosphodiesterase mutant. Adenylate cyclase thus appears to be responsive to sulfur deprivation. These observations may have physiological significance allowing carbon and sulfur regulon coordination during the growth of enteric bacteria in response to nutrient availability.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-1-123
2002-01-01
2021-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/148/1/1480123a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-1-123&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abaibou H., Pommier J., Benoit S., Giordano G., Mandrand-Berthelot M. A. 1995; Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol 177:7141–7149
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Antón D. N. 2000; Induction of the cysteine regulon of Salmonella typhimurium in LB medium affects the response of cysB mutants to mecillinam. Curr Microbiol 40:72–77 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berlyn M. K. 1998; Linkage map of Escherichia coli K12, edition 10: the traditional map. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:814–984
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bochner B. 1993; Advances in the identification of bacteria and yeast. Am Clin Lab 12:6
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Castro L., Feucht B. U., Morse M. L., Saier M. H. Jr 1976; Regulation of carbohydrate permeases and adenylate cyclase in Escherichia coli . Studies with mutant strains in which enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system is thermolabile. J Biol Chem 251:5522–5527
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dassler T., Maier T., Winterhalter C., Bock A. 2000; Identification of a major facilitator protein from Escherichia coli involved in efflux of metabolites of the cysteine pathway. Mol Microbiol 36:1101–1112 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Earhart C. F. others 1996; Uptake and metabolism of iron and molybdenum. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 1075–1090 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Feucht B. U., Saier M. H. Jr 1980; Fine control of adenylate cyclase by the phosphoenol-pyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium . J Bacteriol 141:603–610
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gilman A. G. 1970; A protein binding assay for adenosine 3′: 5′ cyclic monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67:305–312 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gralla J. D., Collado-Vides J. others 1996; Organization and function of transcription regulatory elements. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 1232–1245 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hantke K. 1987; Selection procedure for deregulated iron transport mutants ( fur ) in Escherichia coli K12: fur not only affects iron metabolism. Mol Gen Genet 210:135–139 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harris C. L., Lui L. 1981; Cysteine and growth inhibition of Escherichia coli : derepression of the ilvGEDA operon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 101:1145–1151 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hartmann A., Boos W. 1993; Mutations in phoB , the positive gene activator of the pho regulon in Escherichia coli , affect the carbohydrate phenotype on MacConkey indicator plates. Res Microbiol 144:285–293 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hryniewicz M. M., Kredich N. M. 1991; The cysP promoter of Salmonella typhimurium : characterization of two binding sites for CysB protein, studies of in vivo transcription initiation, and demonstration of the anti-inducer effects of thiosulfate. J Bacteriol 173:5876–5886
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jefferson R. A., Burgess S. M., Hirsh D. 1986; β-Glucuronidase from E. coli as a gene-fusion marker. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:8447–8451 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Johansson J., Balsalobre C., Wang S.-Y., Urbonaviciene J., Jin D. J., Uhlin B. E., Sondén B. 2000; Nucleoid proteins stimulate stringently controlled bacterial promoters: a link between the cAMP-CRP and the (p)ppGpp regulons in Escherichia coli . Cell 102:475–485 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kredich N. M. 1992; The molecular basis for positive regulation of cys promoters in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli . Mol Microbiol 6:2747–2753 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kredich N. M. others 1996; Biosynthesis of cysteine. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 514–527 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lengeler J. 1975a; Mutations affecting transport of the hexitols d-mannitol, d-glucitol, and galactitol in Escherichia coli K-12: isolation and mapping. J Bacteriol 124:26–38
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lengeler J. 1975b; Nature and properties of hexitol transport systems in Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 124:39–47
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lin E. C. C. others 1996; Dissimilatory pathways for sugars, polyols, and carboxylates. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 307–342 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lochowska A., Iwanicka-Nowicka R., Plochocka D., Hryniewicz M. M. 2001; Functional dissection of the LysR-type CysB transcriptional regulator. Regions important for DNA binding, inducer response, oligomerization, and positive control. J Biol Chem 276:2098–2107 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Magasanik B. others 1996; Regulation of nitrogen utilization. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 1344–1356 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miller J. H. 1972 Experiments in Molecular Genetics pp 352–355 Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. O’Callaghan D., Charbit A. 1990; High efficiency transformation of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi by electroporation. Mol Gen Genet 223:156–158 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Oppezzo O. J., Antón D. N. 1995; Involvement of cysB and cysE genes in the sensitivity of Salmonella typhimurium to mecillinam. J Bacteriol 177:4524–4527
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ostrowski J., Kredich N. M. 1989; Molecular characterization of the cysJIH promoters of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli : regulation by cysB protein and N -acetyl-l-serine. J Bacteriol 171:130–140
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ostrowski J., Kredich N. M. 1990; In vitro interactions of CysB protein with the cysJIH promoter of Salmonella typhimurium : inhibitory effects of sulfide. J Bacteriol 172:779–785
    [Google Scholar]
  29. van der Ploeg J. R., Iwanicka-Nowicka R., Kertesz M. A., Leisinger T., Hryniewicz M. M. 1997; Involvement of CysB and Cbl regulatory proteins in expression of the tauABCD operon and other sulfate starvation-inducible genes in Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 179:7671–7678
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rakonjac J., Milic M., Savic D. J. 1991; cysB and cysE mutants of Escherichia coli K12 show increased resistance to novobiocin. Mol Gen Genet 228:307–311
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Reitzer L. J. others 1996a; Ammonia assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, l-alanine and d-alanine. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 391–407 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Reitzer L. J. others 1996b; Sources of nitrogen and their utilization. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 380–390 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Saier M. H. Jr, Ramseier T. M. 1996; The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of enteric bacteria. J Bacteriol 178:3411–3417
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saier M. H. Jr, Feucht B. U., Mora W. K. 1977; Sugar phosphate: sugar transphosphorylation and exchange group translocation catalyzed by the Enzyme II complexes of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. J Biol Chem 252:8899–8907
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Saier M. H. Jr, Ramseier T. M., Reizer J. others 1996; Regulation of carbon utilization. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 1325–1343 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Saier M. H., Schmidt M. R., Lin P. 1980; Phosphoryl exchange reaction catalyzed by Enzyme I of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Kinetic characterization. J Biol Chem 255:8579–8584
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schneider K., Beck C. F. 1986; Promoter-probe vectors for the analysis of divergently arranged promoters. Gene 42:37–48 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Seiflein T. A., Lawrence J. G. 2001; Methionine-to-cysteine recycling in Klebsiella aerogenes . J Bacteriol 183:336–346 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shi X., Bennett G. N. 1994; Effects of rpoA and cysB mutations on acid induction of biodegradative arginine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 176:7017–7023
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Smith G. R., Halpern Y. S., Magasanik B. 1971; Genetic and metabolic control of enzymes responsible for histidine degradation in Salmonella typhimurium . 4-Imidazolone-5-propionate amidohydrolase and N -formimino-l-glutamate formiminohydrolase. J Biol Chem 246:3320–3329
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wanner B. L. others 1996; Phosphorus assimilation and control of the phosphate regulon. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 2nd edn. pp 1357–1381 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wild J., Walczak W., Krajewska-Grynkiewicz K., Klopotowski T. 1974; d-amino acid dehydrogenase: the enzyme of the first step of d-histidine and d-methionine racemization in Salmonella typhimurium . Mol Gen Genet 128:131–146 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Yamada M., Saier M. H. Jr 1987; Glucitol-specific enzymes of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli . Nucleotide sequence of the gut operon. J Biol Chem 262:5455–5463
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Yamada M., Saier M. H. Jr 1988; Positive and negative regulators for glucitol ( gut ) operon expression in Escherichia coli . J Mol Biol 203:569–583 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Yamada M., Yamada Y., Saier M. H. Jr 1990; Nucleotide sequence and expression of the gutQ gene within the glucitol operon of Escherichia coli . DNA Seq 1:141–145
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-1-123
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-1-123
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error