1887

Abstract

Starvation of serovar Typhimurium ( Typhimurium) for an exogenous source of carbon and energy (C-starvation) induces the starvation-stress response (SSR). The SSR functions to (i) maintain viability during long-term C-starvation and (ii) generate cross-resistance to other environmental stresses. The SSR is, at least partially, under the control of the alternative sigma factor, σ. It is hypothesized that C-starvation causes cell envelope stresses that could induce the σ and/or Cpx regulons, both of which control extracytoplasmic functions and, thus, may play a role in the regulation of the SSR. In support of this hypothesis, Western blot analysis showed that the relative levels of σ increased during C-starvation, peaking after approximately 72 h of C-starvation; in contrast, CpxR levels remained relatively constant from exponential phase up to 72 h of C-starvation. To determine if σ, and thus the regulon it controls, is an essential component of the SSR, several mutant strains were compared for their abilities to survive long-term C-starvation and to develop C-starvation-induced (CSI) cross-resistances. An mutant strain was significantly impaired in both long-term C-starvation survival (LT-CSS) and in CSI cross-resistance to challenges with 20 mM HO for 40 min, 55 °C for 16 min, pH 31 for 60 min and 8702 USP U polymyxin B ml (PmB) for 60 min, to varying degrees. These results suggest that C-starvation can generate signals that induce the regulon and that one or more members of the σ regulon are required for maximal SSR function. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the σ and σ regulons function through separate mechanisms in the SSR. In contrast, C-starvation does not appear to generate signals required for Cpx regulon induction which support the findings that it is not required for LT-CSS or cross-resistance to HO, pH 31 or PmB challenges. However, it was required to achieve maximal cross-resistance to 55 °C. Therefore, σ is a key regulatory component of the SSR and represents an additional σ factor required for the SSR of .

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2002-01-01
2020-01-28
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