1887

Abstract

An intraspecies phylogenetic grouping of 168 human commensal strains isolated from the stools of three geographically distinct human populations (France, Croatia, Mali) was generated by triplex PCR. The distributions of seven known extraintestinal virulence determinants (, , /, , , , ) were also determined by PCR. The data from the three populations were compiled, which showed that strains from phylogenetic groups A (40%) and B1 (34%) were the most common, followed by phylogenetic group D strains (15%). Strains of the phylogenetic group B2 were rare (11%). However, a significant specific distribution for strains of groups A, B1 and B2 within each population was observed, which may indicate the influence of (i) geographic/climatic conditions, (ii) dietary factors and/or the use of antibiotics or (iii) host genetic factors on the commensal flora. Virulence determinants were rarely detected, with only 256% of the strains harbouring at least one of the virulence genes tested. The strains with virulence factors most frequently belonged to phylogenetic group B2. The commensal strains of phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D had fewer virulence determinants than pathogenic strains of the corresponding groups when these data were compared with those for previous collections of virulent extraintestinal infection strains studied using the same approach. However, the virulence patterns of commensal and pathogenic B2 phylogenetic group strains were the same. The data thus suggest that strains of the A, B1 and D phylogenetic groups predominate in the gut flora and that these strains must acquire virulence factors to become pathogenic. In contrast, commensal phylogenetic group B2 strains are rare but appear to be potentially virulent.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-6-1671
2001-06-01
2019-12-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/147/6/1471671a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-6-1671&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bingen, E., Picard, B., Brahimi, N., Mathy, S., Desjardins, P., Elion, J. & Denamur, E. ( 1998; ). Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains causing neonatal meningitis suggests horizontal gene transfer from a predominant pool of highly virulent B2 group strains. J Infect Dis 177, 642-650.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Clermont, O., Bonacorsi, S. & Bingen, E. ( 2000; ). Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 4555-4558.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Desjardins, P., Picard, B., Kaltenböck, B., Elion, J. & Denamur, E. ( 1995; ). Sex in Escherichia coli does not disrupt the clonal structure of the population: evidence from random amplified polymorphic DNA and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism. J Mol Evol 40, 440-448.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Eisenstein, B. I. & Zaleznick, D. F. ( 2000; ). Enterobacteriaceae. In Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease , pp. 2294-2310. Edited by G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennet & R. Dolin. New York:Churchill Livingstone.
  5. Falkow, S. (1996). The evolution of pathogenicity in Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd edn, pp. 2723–2769. Edited by F. C. Neidhardt and others. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  6. Finlay, B. B. & Falkow, S. ( 1997; ). Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited. Microb Mol Biol Rev 61, 136-169.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Goullet, P. & Picard, B. ( 1986a; ). Comparative esterase electrophoretic polymorphism of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from animal and human sources. J Gen Microbiol 132, 1843-1851.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goullet, P. & Picard, B. ( 1986b; ). Highly pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli revealed by the distinct electrophoretic patterns of carboxylesterase B. J Gen Microbiol 132, 1853-1858.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hacker, J., Schroter, G., Schrettenbrunner, A., Hugues, C. & Goebel, W. ( 1983; ). Hemolytic Escherichia coli strains in the human fecal flora as potential urinary pathogens. Zentbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg 254, 370-378.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hagberg, L., Jodal, U., Korhonen, T. K., Lidin-Janson, G., Lindberg, U. & Svanborg Eden, C. ( 1981; ). Adhesion, hemagglutination, and virulence of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections. Infect Immun 31, 564-570.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Herzer, P. J., Inouye, S., Inouye, M. & Whittam, T. S. ( 1990; ). Phylogenetic distribution of branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA among natural isolates of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 172, 6175-6181.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hilali, F., Ruimy, R., Saulnier, P., Barnabé, C., Lebouguénec, C., Tibayrenc, M. & Andremont, A. ( 2000; ). Prevalence of virulence genes and clonality in Escherichia coli strains that cause bacteremia in cancer patients. Infect Immun 68, 3983-3989.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Johnson, J. R., Goullet, P., Picard, B., Moseley, S. L., Roberts, P. L. & Stamm, W. E. ( 1991; ). Association of carboxylesterase B electrophoretic pattern with presence and expression of urovirulence factor determinants and antimicrobial resistance among strains of Escherichia coli that cause urosepsis. Infect Immun 59, 2311-2315.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lecointre, G., Rachdi, L., Darlu, P. & Denamur, E. ( 1998; ). Escherichia coli molecular phylogeny using the incongruence length difference test. Mol Biol Evol 15, 1685-1695.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Maurelli, A. T., Fernandez, R. E., Bloch, C. A., Rode, C. K. & Fasano, A. ( 1998; ). ‘Black holes’ and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 3943-3948.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Minshew, B. H., Jorgensen, J., Counts, G. W. & Falkow, S. ( 1978; ). Association of hemolysin production, hemagglutination of human erythrocytes, and virulence for chicken embryos of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates. Infect Immun 20, 50-54.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mühldorfer, I. & Hacker, J. ( 1994; ). Genetic aspects of Escherichia coli virulence. Microb Pathog 16, 171-181.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mühldorfer, I., Blum, G., Donohue-Rolfe, A., Heier, H., Ölschlälger, T., Tschäpe, H., Wallner, U. & Hacker, J. ( 1996; ). Characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from environmental water habitats and from stool samples of healthy volunteers. Res Microbiol 147, 625-635.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ochman, H. & Selander, R. K. ( 1984; ). Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J Bacteriol 157, 690-693.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ochman, H., Lawrence, J. G. & Groisman, E. A. ( 2000; ). Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405, 299-304.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Opal, S. M., Cross, A. S., Gemski, P. & Lythe, L. W. ( 1990; ). Aerobactin and alpha-hemolysin as virulence determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from human blood, urine, and stool. J Infect Dis 161, 794-796.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Picard, B. & Goullet, P. ( 1988; ). Correlation between electrophoretic types B1 and B2 of carboxylesterase B and host-dependent factors in Escherichia coli septicaemia. Epidemiol Infect 100, 51-61.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Picard, B., Picard-Pasquier, N. & Krishnamoorthy, R. ( 1987; ). Characterization of highly virulent Escherichia coli strains by ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. FEMS Microbiol Lett 82, 183-188.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Picard, B., Goullet, P., Sammartino, A. E. & Chaventré, A. (1990). Electrophoretic polymorphism of esterases in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different host populations. In Pluridisciplinary Approach to Human Isolates, pp. 233–242. Edited by the Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques (INED), Paris.
  25. Picard, B., Sevali-Garcia, J., Gouriou, S., Duriez, P., Brahimi, N., Bingen, E., Elion, J. & Denamur, E. ( 1999; ). The link between phylogeny and virulence in Escherichia coli extraintestinal infection. Infect Immun 67, 546-553.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Picard, B., Duriez, P., Gouriou, S., Matic, I., Denamur, E. & Taddei, F. ( 2001; ). Mutator natural isolates Escherichia coli isolates have an unusual virulence phenotype. Infect Immun 69, 9-14.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pupo, G. M., Karaolis, R., Lan, R. & Reeves, P. R. ( 1997; ). Evolutionary relationship among pathogenic and non pathogenic Escherichia coli strains inferred from multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and mdh sequence studies. Infect Immun 65, 2685-2692.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pupo, G. M., Lan, R. & Reeves, P. R. ( 2000; ). Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 10567-10572.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rolland, K., Lambert-Zechovsky, N., Picard, B. & Denamur, E. ( 1998; ). Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are derived from distinct ancestral strains of E. coli. Microbiology 144, 2667-2672.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Selander, R. K. & Levin, B. R. ( 1980; ). Genetic diversity and structure in Escherichia coli populations. Science 210, 545-547.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Siitonen, A. ( 1992; ). Escherichia coli in fecal flora of healthy adults: serotypes, P and type 1C fimbriae, non-P mannose-resistant adhesins, and hemolytic activity. J Infect Dis 166, 1058-1065.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sokurenko, E. V., Chesnokova, V., Dykhuizen, D. E., Ofer, I., Wu, X. R., Krogfelt, K. A., Struve, C., Schembri, M. A. & Hasty, D. ( 1998; ). Pathogenic adaptation of Escherichia coli by natural variation of the FimH adhesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 8922-8926.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Souza, V., Rocha, M., Valera, A. & Eguiarte, L. E. ( 1999; ). Genetic structure of natural populations of Escherichia coli in wild hosts on different continents. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 3373-3385.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-6-1671
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-6-1671
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error