1887

Abstract

tRNA-mediated transcription antitermination has been shown to control the expression of several amino acid biosynthesis operons and aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase-encoding genes in Gram-positive bacteria. A model originally put forward by Grundy & Henkin describes the conserved structural features of the leader sequences of these operons and genes. Two sequences of 3 and 4 nt, respectively, take a central position in this model and are thought to be responsible for the binding of the system-specific uncharged tRNA, an interaction which would stabilize the antiterminator conformation of the leader. Here a further evolution of this model is presented based on an analysis of regulation in in which a function is assigned to hitherto unexplained conserved structures in the leader sequence. It is postulated that the mRNA–tRNA interaction involves various parts of the tRNA in addition to the anticodon and the acceptor in the original model and that these additional interactions contribute to the recognition of a specific tRNA, and hence to the specificity and efficacy of the regulatory response.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-5-1223
2001-05-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/147/5/1471223a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-5-1223&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bardowski, J., Ehrlich, S. D. & Chopin, A. ( 1992; ). Tryptophan biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J Bacteriol 174, 6563-6570.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Birnboim, H. C. & Doly, J. ( 1979; ). A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 7, 1513-1523.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chopin, A., Biaudet, V. & Ehrlich, S. D. ( 1998; ). Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis genome sequence reveals nine new T-box leaders. Mol Microbiol 29, 662-664.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Delorme, C., Ehrlich, S. D. & Renault, P. ( 1999; ). Regulation of expression of the Lactococcus lactis histidine operon. J Bacteriol 181, 2026-2037.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dower, W. J., Miller, J. F. & Ragsdale, C. W. ( 1988; ). High efficiency transformation of E. coli cells by high voltage electroporation. Nucleic Acids Res 16, 6127-6145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Frenkiel, H., Bardowski, J., Ehrlich, S. D. & Chopin, A. ( 1998; ). Transcription of the trp operon in Lactococcus lactis is controlled by antitermination in the leader region. Microbiology 144, 2103-2111.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Giegé, R., Sissler, M. & Florentz, C. ( 1998; ). Universal rules and idiosyncratic features in tRNA identity. Nucleic Acids Res 26, 5017-5035.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Grosjean, H., Söll, D. G. & Crothers, D. M. ( 1976; ). Studies of the complex between transfer RNAs with complementary anticodons. I. Origins of enhanced affinity between complementary triplets. J Mol Biol 103, 499-519.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Grundy, F. J. & Henkin, T. M. ( 1993; ). tRNA as a positive regulator of transcription antitermination in B. subtilis. Cell 74, 475-482.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Grundy, F. J. & Henkin, T. M. ( 1994; ). Conservation of a transcription antitermination mechanism in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and amino acid biosynthesis genes in Gram-positive bacteria. J Mol Biol 235, 798-804.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Grundy, F. J., Rollins, S. M. & Henkin, T. M. ( 1994; ). Interaction between the acceptor end of tRNA and the T box stimulates antitermination in the Bacillus subtilis tyrS gene: a new role for the discriminator base. J Bacteriol 176, 4518-4526.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Henkin, T. M. ( 1994; ). tRNA-directed transcription antitermination. Mol Microbiol 13, 381-387.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Holo, H. & Nes, I. F. ( 1995; ). Transformation of Lactococcus lactis by electroporation. Methods Mol Biol 47, 195-199.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Le Loir, Y., Gruss, A., Ehrlich, S. D. & Langella, P. ( 1998; ). A nine-residue synthetic propeptide enhances secretion efficiency of heterologous proteins in Lactococcus lactis. J Bacteriol 180, 1895-1903.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Luo, D., Condon, C., Grunberg-Manago, M. & Putzer, H. ( 1998; ). In vitro and in vivo secondary structure probing of the thrS leader in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res 26, 5379-5387.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Miller, J. H. (1972). Experiments in Molecular Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  17. Putzer, H., Laalami, S., Brakhage, A. A., Condon, C. & Grunberg-Manago, M. ( 1995; ). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene regulation in Bacillus subtilis: induction, repression and growth-rate regulation. Mol Microbiol 16, 709-718.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Raya, R., Bardowski, J., Andersen, P. S., Ehrlich, S. D. & Chopin, A. ( 1998; ). Multiple transcriptional control of the Lactococcus lactis trp operon. J Bacteriol 180, 3174-3180.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rollins, S. M., Grundy, F. J. & Henkin, T. M. ( 1997; ). Analysis of cis-acting sequence and structural elements required for antitermination of the Bacillus subtilis tyrS gene. Mol Microbiol 25, 411-421.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Scarabino, D., Crisari, A., Lorenzini, S., Williams, K. & Tocchini-Valentini, G. P. ( 1999; ). tRNA prefers to kiss. EMBO J 18, 4571-4578.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Simon, D. & Chopin, A. ( 1988; ). Construction of a vector plasmid family and its use for molecular cloning in Streptococcus lactis. Biochimie 70, 559-566.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Terzaghi, B. E. & Sandine, W. E. ( 1975; ). Improved medium for lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. Appl Microbiol 29, 807-813.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tomizawa, J. ( 1984; ). Control of ColEI plasmid replication: the process of binding of RNA I to the primer transcript. Cell 38, 861-870.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Van de Guchte, M., Ehrlich, S. D. & Chopin, A. ( 1998; ). tRNATrp as a key element of antitermination in the Lactococcus lactis trp operon. Mol Microbiol 29, 61-74.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Van der Vossen, J. M. B. M., Van der Lelie, D. & Venema, G. ( 1987; ). Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus cremoris WG2-specific promoters. Appl Environ Microbiol 53, 2452-2457.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-5-1223
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-5-1223
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error