1887

Abstract

The lipid A from has been isolated and its complete chemical structure determined [Iida, T., Haishima, Y., Tanaka, A., Nishijima, K., Saito, S. & Tanamoto, K. (1996). 237, 468–475]. In this work, the relationship between its chemical structure and biological activity was studied. The lipid A was highly homogeneous chemically and was characterized by the relatively short chain length (C) of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid components directly bound to the glucosamine disaccharide backbone by either amide or ester linkages. The lipid A exhibited endotoxic activity in all of the assay systems tested (mitogenicity in mouse spleen cells; induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha release from both mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage-like cell line J774-1, as well as from the human monocytic cell line THP-1; induction of nitric oxide release from J774-1 cells; gelation activity and lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized mice) to the same extent as did ‘’ lipid A or LPS used as controls. The strong endotoxic activity of the lipid A indicates that the composition of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid is not responsible for the low endotoxicity of the lipid A observed in members of the genus, as has previously been suggested. Furthermore, both the lack of a second acylation of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at the 3′ position, and the substitution of the hydroxyl group of the 3-hydroxy fatty acid attached at position 2, do not affect the manifestation of endotoxic activity or species specificity.

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2001-05-01
2019-10-18
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