1887

Abstract

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties var. and var. on the one hand versus var on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In as well as in one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the reproductive biology of the species, as new genotypes with altered virulence or susceptibility to antifungal drugs may arise through the exchange of genetic material.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-4-891
2001-04-01
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/147/4/1470891a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-4-891&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aulakh, H. S., Straus, S. E. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1981; ). Genetic relatedness of Filobasidiella neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) and Filobasidiella bacillispora (Cryptococcus bacillisporus) as determined by deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and sequence homology studies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 31, 97-103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Avise, J. C. & Wollenberg, K. ( 1997; ). Phylogenetics and the origin of species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 7748-7755.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandoni, R. J. ( 1995; ). Dimorphic heterobasidiomycetes: taxonomy and parasitism. Stud Mycol 38, 13-27.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baró, T., Torres-Rodrı́guez, J. M., Hermoso de Mendoza, M., Norera, Y. & Alı́a, C. ( 1998; ). First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 36, 458-461.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. de Barros Lopes, M., Rainieri, S., Henschke, P. A. & Langridge, P. ( 1999; ). AFLP fingerprinting for analysis of yeast genetic variation. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 915-924.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bennett, J. E., Kwon-Chung, K. J. & Theodore, T. S. ( 1978; ). Biochemical differences between serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Sabouraudia 16, 167-174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blears, M. J., De Grandis, S. A., Lee, H. & Trevors, J. T. ( 1998; ). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP): a review of the procedure and its applications. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 21, 99-114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Boekhout, T. & van Belkum, A. ( 1997; ). Variability of karyotypes and RAPD types in genetically related strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Curr Genet 32, 203-208.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Boekhout, T. & Scorzetti, G. ( 1997; ). Differential killer toxin sensitivity patterns of varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Med Vet Mycol 35, 147-149.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boekhout, T., van Belkum, A., Leenders, A. C. A. P., Verbrugh, H. A., Mukamurangwa, P., Swinne, D. & Scheffers, W. A. ( 1997; ). Molecular typing of Cryptococcus neoformans: taxonomic and epidemiological aspects. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 432-442.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brandt, M. E., Bragg, S. L. & Pinner, R. W. ( 1993; ). Multilocus enzyme typing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Microbiol 31, 2819-2823.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brandt, M. E., Hutwagner, L. C., Pinner, R. W. & the Cryptococcal Disease Active Surveillance Group ( 1995; ). Comparison of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis for molecular subtyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Microbiol 33, 1890–1895.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brandt, M. E., Hutwagner, L. C., Klug, L. A. & 9 other authors ( 1996; ). Molecular subtype distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in four areas of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 34, 912–917.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Breyne, P., Rombaut, D., Van Gysel, A., Van Montagu, M. & Gerats, T. ( 1999; ). AFLP analysis of genetic diversity within and between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. Mol Gen Genet 261, 627-634.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Callejas, A., Ordoñez, N., Rodrı́guez, M. C. & Castañeda, E. ( 1998; ). First isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C, from the environment in Colombia. Med Mycol 36, 341-344.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Casadevall, A. & Perfect, J. R. (1998). Cryptococcus neoformans, pp. 1–541. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  17. Cherniak, R. & Sundstrom, J. B. ( 1994; ). Polysaccharide antigens of the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 62, 1507-1512.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cogliati, M., Allaria, M., Tortorano, A. M., Liberi, G. & Viviani, M. A. (1999a). Occurrence of diploidy correlated to PCR-fingerprinting patterns of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. In Programme and Abstracts, 4th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, September 1999, p. 137. London: Royal Society.
  19. Cogliati, M., Allaria, M., Tortorano, A. M. & Viviani, M. A. (1999b). Sequence analysis and evaluation of heterozygosity in PCR fingerprinting patterns of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. In Programme and Abstracts, 4th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, p. 110. London: Royal Society.
  20. Diaz, M. R., Boekhout, T., Theelen, B. & Fell, J. W. (2001). Molecular sequence analyses of the intergenic spacer (IGS) associated with rDNA of the two varieties of the pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. Syst Appl Microbiol (in press).
  21. Dromer, F., Guého, E., Ronin, O. & Dupont, B. ( 1993; ). Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans by using a monoclonal antibody specific for capsular polysaccharide. J Clin Microbiol 31, 359-363.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dromer, F., Varma, A., Ronin, O., Mathoulin, S. & Dupont, B. ( 1994; ). Molecular typing of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol 32, 2364-2371.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dromer, F., Mathoulin, S., Dupont, B., Laporte, A. & the French Cryptococcosis Study Group ( 1996; ). Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985–1993). Clin Infect Dis 23, 82–90.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dufait, R., Velho, R. & De Vroey, C. ( 1987; ). Rapid identification of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans by d-proline assimilation. Mykosen 30, 483.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ellis, D. H. & Pfeiffer, T. J. ( 1990; ). Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Lancet 336, 923-925.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ellis, D. & Pfeiffer, T. ( 1992; ). The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur J Epidemiol 8, 321-325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Fell, J. W., Boekhout, T., Fonseca, A., Scorzetti, G. & Statzell-Tallman, A. ( 2000; ). Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1351-1371.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Franzot, S. P., Hamdan, J. S., Currie, B. P. & Casadevall, A. ( 1997; ). Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Brazil and the United States: evidence for both local genetic differences and a global clonal population structure. J Clin Microbiol 35, 2243-2251.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Franzot, S. P., Fries, B. C., Cleare, W. & Casadevall, A. ( 1998a; ). Genetic relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans strains of serotypes A and D. J Clin Microbiol 36, 2200-2204.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Franzot, S. P., Mukherjee, J., Cherniak, R., Chen, L.-C., Hamdan, J. S. & Casadevall, A. ( 1998b; ). Microevolution of standard strain of Cryptococcus neoformans resulting in differences in virulence and other phenotypes. Infect Immun 66, 89-97.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Franzot, S. P., Salkin, I. F. & Casadevall, A. ( 1999; ). Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J Clin Microbiol 37, 838-840.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fries, B. C. & Casadevall, A. ( 1998; ). Serial isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from patients with AIDS differ in virulence for mice. J Infect Dis 178, 1761-1766.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Garçia-Hermoso, D., Mathoulin-Pélissier, S., Couprie, B., Ronin, O., Dupont, B. & Dromer, F. ( 1997; ). DNA typing suggests pigeon dropping as a source of pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. J Clin Microbiol 35, 2683-2685.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Howard, D. H. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1995; ). Zoopathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts. Stud Mycol 38, 59-66.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ikeda, R., Shinoda, T., Fukazawa, Y. & Kaufman, L. ( 1982; ). Antigenic characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes and its application to serotyping of clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol 16, 22-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Imai, T., Watanabe, K., Mikami, Y., Tanaka, R., Nishimura, K., Miyaji, M., Poonwan, N. & Branchini, M. L. M. ( 2000; ). Geographic grouping of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii by random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprint patterns and ITS sequence divergence. Clin Lab 46, 345-354.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Janssen, P., Coopman, R., Huys, G., Swings, J., Bleeker, M., Vos, P., Zabeau, M. & Kersters, K. ( 1996; ). Evaluation of the DNA fingerprinting method AFLP as a new tool in bacterial taxonomy. Microbiology 142, 1881-1893.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kovacs, J. A., Kovacs, A. A., Polis, M. & 12 other authors ( 1985; ). Cryptococcosis in the acquired immonudeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 103, 533–538.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1975; ). A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia 67, 1197-1200.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1976; ). A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes. Mycologia 68, 942-946.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1998; ). Filobasidiella Kwon-Chung. In The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study , pp. 656-662. Edited by C. P. Kurtzman & J. W. Fell. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  42. Kwon-Chung, K. J. & Bennett, J. E. ( 1978; ). Distribution of α and a mating types of Cryptococcus neoformans among natural and clinical isolates. Am J Epidemiol 108, 337-340.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kwon-Chung, K. J. & Bennett, J. E. ( 1984; ). Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am J Epidemiol 120, 123-130.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Bennett, J. E. & Theodore, T. S. ( 1978; ). Cryptococcus bacillisporus sp. nov.: serotype B-C of Cryptococcus neoformans. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28, 616-620.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Polacheck, I. & Bennett, J. E. ( 1982a; ). Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C). J Clin Microbiol 15, 535-537.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Bennett, J. E. & Rhodes, J. C. ( 1982b; ). Taxonomic studies on Filobasidiella species and their anamorphs. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 48, 25-38.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Wickes, B. L., Booth, J. L., Vishniac, H. S. & Bennett, J. E. ( 1987; ). Urease inhibition by EDTA in the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 55, 1751-1754.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Varma, A. K. & Howard, D. H. ( 1988; ). Ecology and epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans: a recent study of isolates in the United States. In Proceedings X Congress ISHAM, June 27–July 1, 1988 , pp. 107-112. Edited by J. M. Torres-Rodrı́guez. Barcelona: Prous Science.
  49. Lazera, M. S., Wanke, B. & Nishikawa, N. M. ( 1993; ). Isolation of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans from saprophytic sources in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Med Vet Mycol 31, 449-454.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lazera, M. S., Pires, F. D. A., Camillo-Coura, L., Nishikawa, M. M., Bezerra, C. C. F., Trilles, L. & Wanke, B. ( 1996; ). Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in decaying wood forming hollows in living trees. J Med Vet Mycol 34, 127-131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Leissner, C. E. W., Niessen, M. L. & Vogel, R. F. ( 1997; ). Use of AFLP technique for the identification and discrimination of Fusarium graminearum. Cereal Res Commun 25, 555-556.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Levitz, S. M. ( 1991; ). The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Rev Infect Dis 13, 1163-1169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Meyer, W. & Mitchell, T. G. ( 1995; ). Polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting in fungi using single primers specific to minisatellites and simple repetitive DNA sequences: strain variation in Cryptococcus neoformans. Electrophoresis 16, 1648-1656.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Meyer, W., Mitchell, T. G., Freedman, E. Z. & Vilgalys, R. ( 1993; ). Hybridization probes for conventional DNA fingerprinting used as single primers in the polymerase chain reaction to distinguish strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Microbiol 31, 2274-2280.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Mitchell, T. G. & Perfect, J. R. ( 1995; ). Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS – 100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin Microbiol Rev 8, 515-548.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Mukaramangwa, P., Raes Wuytack, C. & De Vroey, C. ( 1995; ). Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii can be separated from var. neoformans by its ability to assimilate d-tryptophan. J Med Vet Mycol 33, 419-420.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. O’Donnell, K., Cigelnik, E., Weber, N. S. & Trappe, J. M. ( 1997; ). Phylogenetic relationships among ascomycetous truffles and the true and false morels inferred from 18S and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. Mycologia 89, 48-65.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Otsen, M., den Bieman, M., Kuiper, M. T., Pravenec, M., Kren, V., Kurtz, T. W., Jacob, H. J., Lankhorst, A. & van Zutphen, B. F. ( 1996; ). Use of AFLP markers for gene mapping and OTL detection in the rat. Genomics 37, 289-294.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Petter, R., Varma, A., Boekhout, T., Salas, S., Davis, B. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. (1996). Molecular divergence of the virulence factors of Filobasidiella neoformans found in other heterobasidiomycetous yeasts. In Programme and Abstracts, 3rd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, pp. 136–138. Paris: Institut Pasteur.
  60. Pfeiffer, T. J. & Ellis, D. H. ( 1993; ). Serotypes of Australian environmental and clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Med Vet Mycol 31, 401-404.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Polacheck, I. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1980; ). Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus. J Bacteriol 142, 15-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Qi, X. & Lindhout, P. ( 1997; ). Development of AFLP markers in barley. Mol Gen Genet 254, 330-336.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Savelkoul, P. H. M., Aarts, H. J. M., de Haas, J., Dijkshoorn, L., Duim, B., Otsen, M., Rademaker, J. L. W., Schouls, L. & Lenstra, J. A. ( 1999; ). Amplified-fragment length polymorphism analysis: the state of the art. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3083-3091.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Schupbach, C. W., Wheeler, C. E., Briggaman, R. A., Warner, N. A. & Kanof, E. P. ( 1976; ). Cutaneous manifestations of dissiminated cryptococcosis. Arch Dermatol 112, 1734-1740.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sorrell, T. C., Brownlee, A. G., Ruma, P., Malik, R., Pfeiffer, T. J. & Ellis, D. H. ( 1996; ). Natural environmental sources of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. J Clin Microbiol 34, 1261-1263.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Speed, B. & Dunt, D. ( 1995; ). Clinical and host differences between infections with the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin Infect Dis 21, 28-34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Swinne, D. ( 1984; ). Study of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties. Mykosen 27, 137-141.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Swinne, D. ( 1988; ). Ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and epidemiology of cryptococcosis in the old world. In Proceedings X Congress ISHAM, June 27–July 1, 1988 , pp. 113-119. Edited by J. M. Torres-Rodrı́guez. Barcelona: Prous Science.
  69. Swinne-Desgain, D. ( 1975; ). Cryptococcus neoformans of saprophytic origin. Sabouraudia 13, 303-308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Tanaka, R., Nishimura, K. & Miyaji, M. ( 1999; ). Ploidy of serotype AD strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 40, 31-34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Taylor, J. W., Geiser, D. M., Burt, A. & Koufopanou, V. ( 1999; ). The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clin Microbiol Rev 12, 126-147.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Van der Lee, T., de Witte, I., Drenth, A., Alfonso, C. & Govers, F. ( 1997; ). AFLP linkage map of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet Biol 21, 278-291.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Varma, A., Swinne, D., Staib, F., Bennett, J. E. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1995; ). Diversity of DNA fingerprints in Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Microbiol 33, 1807-1814.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M. & 8 other authors ( 1995; ). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23, 4407–4414.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Wickes, B. L., Moore, T. D. E. & Kwon-Chung, K. J. ( 1994; ). Comparison of the electrophoretic karyotypes and chromosomal location of ten genes in the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 140, 543-550.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Williamson, P. R. ( 1994; ). Biochemical and molecular characterization of the diphenol oxidase of Cryptococcus neoformans: identification as a laccase. J Bacteriol 176, 656-664.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Zabeau, M. & Vos, P. ( 1993; ). Selective restriction fragment amplification: a general method for DNA fingerprinting. European Patent Office Publication 0 534 858 A1.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-4-891
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-4-891
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error