is a recently described endophytic fungus obtained from small limbs of (cinnamon tree). This xylariaceaous fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain other fungi, and bacteria, by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then made into an artificial mixture that mimicked the antibiotic effects of the mixture of volatile compounds given off by the fungus. Each of the five classes of volatile compounds produced by the fungus (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) had some inhibitory effect against the test fungi and bacteria, but none was lethal. However, collectively they acted synergistically to kill a broad range of plant- and human-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The most effective class of inhibitory compounds was the esters, of which 1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate was the most active biologically. This report describes the ecological implications and potential practical benefits of the ‘mycofumigation’ effects of .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bacon, C. W. & White, J. F., Jr (2000).Microbial Endophytes. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  2. Bjurman, J. & Kristensson, J. (1992). Volatile production by Aspergillus versicolor as a possible cause of odor in houses affected by fungi. Mycopathologia 118, 173-178.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Dennis, C. & Webster, J. (1971). Antagonistic properties of species-groups of Trichoderma. 11. Production of volatile antibiotics. Trans Br Mycol Soc 57, 41-48.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Hawksworth, D. C. & Rossman, A. Y. (1987). Where are the undescribed fungi? Phytopathology 87, 888-891. [Google Scholar]
  5. Heathcock, C. H. & Ratcliffe, R. (1971). Stereoselective total synthesis of the guaiazulenic sesquiterpenoids α-bulnesene and bulnesol. J Am Chem Soc 93, 1746-1757.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hoefle, G., Steglich, W. & Vorbrueggen, H. (1978). 4-Dialkyl aminopyridines as highly active acylation catalysts. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 17, 569-583.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Li, J. Y. & Strobel, G. A. (2001). Jesterone and hydroxy-jesterone antioomycete cyclohexenone epoxides from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis jesteri. Phytochemistry 57, 261-265.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Li, J. Y., Strobel, G. A., Harper, J., Lobkovsky, E. & Clardy, J. (2000). Cryptocin, a potent tetramic acid antimycotic from the endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis cf. quercina. Org Lett 2, 767-770.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Li, J. Y., Harper, J., Grant, D. M., Tombe, B. O., Bashyal, B., Hess, W. M. & Strobel, G. A. (2001). Ambuic acid, a highly functionalized cyclohexenone with antifungal activity from Pestalotiopsis spp and Monochaetia sp. Phytochemistry 56, 463-468.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Nelson, P. V. (1998).Greenhouse Operation and Management, 5th edn. New York: Prentice-Hall.
  11. Rapior, S., Fons, F. & Bessiere, J. (2000). The fenugreek odor of Lactarius helvius. Mycologia 92, 305-308.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Schnurer, J., Olsson, J. & Borjesson, T. (1999). Fungal volatiles as indicators of food and feeds spoilage. Fungal Genet Biol 27, 209-217.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Stierle, A., Strobel, G. A. & Stierle, D. (1993). Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of Pacific yew. Science 260, 214-216.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Strobel, G. A., Li, J. Y., Sugawara, F., Koshino, H., Harper, J. & Hess, W. M. (1999). Oocydin A, a chlorinated macrocyclic lactone with potent anti-oomycete activity from Serratia marcescens. Microbiology 145, 3557-3564. [Google Scholar]
  15. Woropong, J., Strobel, G. A., Ford, E. J., Li, J. Y., Baird, G. & Hess, W. M. (2001).Muscodor albus anam. nov., an endophyte from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Mycotaxon 79, 67-79. [Google Scholar]
  16. Yang, X., Strobel, G. A., Stierle, A., Hess, W. M., Lee, J. & Clardy, J. (1994). A fungal endophyte–tree relationship; Phoma sp. in Taxus wallichiana. Plant Sci 102, 1-9.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error