1887

Abstract

and , the respective agents of Oroya fever and cat-scratch disease in humans, are known to produce bacteriophage-like particles (BLPs) that package 14 kbp segments of the host chromosome. Data from this study suggest that other species including , and also contain similar BLPs, as evidenced by the presence of a 14 kbp extrachromosomal DNA element in their genomes, whereas and do not. A purification scheme utilizing chloroform, DNase I and centrifugation was devised to isolate BLPs from . Intact BLPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and were round to icosahedral in shape and approximately 80 nm in diameter. RFLP and Southern blot analysis of BLP DNA from suggest that packaging, while non-selective, is less than the near-random packaging previously reported for the phage. Data also suggest that the linear, double-stranded BLP DNA molecules have blunt ends with non-covalently closed termini. Packaging of the BLP DNA molecules into a protein coat appears to be closely related to nucleic acid synthesis, as unpackaged phage DNA is not detectable within the host cell. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified BLPs from showed three major proteins with apparent molecular masses of 32, 34 and 36 kDa; values that closely correspond to proteins found in BLPs. Western blot analysis performed with patient convalescent serum showed that BLP proteins are slightly immunogenic in humans. To determine if BLPs contribute to horizontal gene transfer, mutants of were generated by allelic exchange with an internal fragment of the 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and a suicide vector construct, termed pKB1. BLPs from one of the resultant strains were able to package the mutagenized region containing the kanamycin-resistance cassette; however, numerous approaches and attempts at intraspecies transduction using these BLPs were unsuccessful.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-3-599
2000-03-01
2020-04-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/146/3/1460599a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-3-599&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ackermann H. W., Audurier A., Berthiaume L., Jones L. A., Mayo J. A., Vidaver A. K.. 1978; Guidelines for bacteriophage characterization. Adv Virus Res23:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson B., Goldsmith C., Johnson A., Padmalayam I., Baumstark B.. 1994; Bacteriophage-like particle of Rochalimaea henselae. Mol Microbiol13:67–73[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ausubel F. M., Brent R., Kingston R. E., Moore D. D., Seidman J. G., Smith J. A., Struhl K.. 1995; Current Protocols in Molecular Biology New York: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barbour A. G., Garon C. F.. 1987; Linear plasmids of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi have covalently closed ends. Science237:409–411[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Battisti J. M., Minnick M. F.. 1999; Development of a system for site-directed mutagenesis of Bartonella bacilliformis. Appl Environ Microbiol65:3441–3448
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Battisti J. M., Smitherman L. S., Samuels D. S., Minnick M. F.. 1998; Mutations in Bartonella bacilliformis gyrB confer resistance to Coumermycin A1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother42:2906–2913
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Benson L. A., Kar S., McLaughlin G., Ihler G. M.. 1986; Entry of Bartonella bacilliformis into erythrocytes. Infect Immun54:347–353
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Birge E. A.. 1994; Bacterial and Bacteriophage Genetics, 3rd edn. New York: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Birnboim H. C., Doly J.. 1979; A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res7:1513–1523[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Birtles R. J., Harrison T. G., Saunders N. A., Molyneux D. H.. 1995; Proposals to unify the genera Grahamella and Bartonella, with descriptions of Bartonella talpae comb. nov., Bartonella peromysci comb. nov., and three new species, Bartonella grahamii sp. nov., Bartonella taylorii sp. nov., and Bartonella doshiae sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol45:1–8[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bowers T. J., Sweger D., Jue D., Anderson B.. 1998; Isolation, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding a major protein from the bacteriophage associated with Bartonella henselae. Gene206:49–52[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brenner D. J., O’Connor S. P., Hollis D. G., Weaver R. E., Steigerwalt A. G.. 1991; Molecular characterization and proposal of a neotype strain for Bartonella bacilliformis. J Clin Microbiol29:1299–1302
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Daly J. S., Worthington M. G., Brenner D. J..7 other authors 1993; Rochalimaea elizabethae sp. nov. isolated from a patient with endocarditis. J Clin Microbiol31:872–881
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Davis R. W., Bostein D., Roth J. R.. 1980; Advanced Bacterial Genetics Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Garcia-Caceres U., Garcia F. U.. 1991; Bartonellosis. An immunodepressive disease and the life of Daniel Alcides Carrion. Am J Clin Pathol95:S58–S66
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Garro A. J., Marmur J.. 1970; Defective bacteriophages. J Cell Physiol76:253–264[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hertig M.. 1942; Phlebotomus and Carrion’s disease. Am J Trop Med22:1–76
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Humphrey S. B., Stanton T. B., Jensen N. S., Zuerner R. L.. 1997; Purification and characterization of VSH-1, a generalized transducing bacteriophage of Serpulina hyodysenteriae. J Bacteriol179:323–329
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hurtado A., Musso J. P., Merino C.. 1938; La anemia en la enfermadad de Carrion (verruga peruana). Ann Fac Med Lima28:154–168
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kovach M. E., Phillips R. W., Elzer P. H., Roop R. M. II, Peterson K. M.. 1994; pBBR1MCS: a broad-host-range cloning vector. BioTechniques16:801–802
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kovach M. E., Elzer P. H., Hill D. S., Robertson G. T., Farris M. A., Roop R. M. II, Peterson K. M.. 1995; Four new derivatives of the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1MCS, carrying different antibiotic-resistance cassettes. Gene166:175–176[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kreier J. P., Ristic M.. 1981; The biology of hemotrophic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol35:325–338[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Laemmli U. K.. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature227:680–685[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lawson P. A., Collins M. D.. 1996; Description of Bartonella clarridgeiae sp.nov. isolated from the cat of a patient with Bartonella henselae septicemia. Med Microbiol Lett5:64–73
    [Google Scholar]
  25. McGinnis-Hill E., Raji A., Valenzuela M. S., Garcia F., Hoover R.. 1992; Adhesion to and invasion of cultured human cells by Bartonella bacilliformis. Infect Immun60:4051–4058
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Minnick M. F.. 1997; Virulence determinants of Bartonella bacilliformis. In Rickettsial Infection and Immunity pp.197–211Edited by Anderson B., Friedman H., Bendinelli M.. New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Minnick M. F., Barbian K. D.. 1997; Identification of Bartonella using PCR; genus- and species-specific primer sets. J Microbiol Methods31:51–57[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Minnick M. F., Heinzen R. A., Frazier M. E., Mallavia L. P.. 1990; Characterization and expression of the cbbE′ gene of Coxiella burnetii. J Gen Microbiol136:1099–1107[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Minnick M. F., Strange J. C., Williams K. F.. 1994; Characterization of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer of Bartonella bacilliformis. Gene143:149–150[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Minnick M. F., Mitchell S. J., McAllister S. J.. 1996; Cell entry and the pathogenesis of Bartonella infections. Trends Microbiol4:343–347[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Myers W. F., Wisseman C. L. Jr, Fiset P., Oaks E. V., Smith J. F.. 1979; Taxonomic relationship of vole agent to Rochalimaea quintana. Infect Immun26:976–983
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Regnery R. L., Anderson B. E., Clarridge J. E. III, Rodriguez-Barradas M. C., Jones D. C., Carr J. H.. 1992; Characterization of a novel Rochalimaea species, R. henselae sp. nov., isolated from the blood of a febrile, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J Clin Microbiol30:265–274
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reynafarje C., Ramos J.. 1961; The hemolytic anemia of human bartonellosis. Blood17:562–578
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Scherer D. C., DeBuron-Connors I., Minnick M. F.. 1993; Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis flagella and effect of antiflagellin antibodies on invasion of human erythrocytes. Infect Immun61:4962–4971
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Southern E. M.. 1975; Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol98:503–517[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Towbin H., Staehelin T., Gordon J.. 1979; Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA76:4350–4354[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Umemori E., Sasaki Y., Amano K., Amano Y.. 1992; A phage in Bartonella bacilliformis. Microbiol Immunol36:731–736[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Voyles B. A.. 1993; The Biology of VirusesEdited by Callanan R. J.. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Weiss E., Dasch G. A.. 1982; Differential characteristics of strains of Rochalimaea: Rochalimaea vinsonii sp. nov., the Canadian vole agent. Int J Syst Bacteriol32:305–314[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Yarmolinsky M. B., Sternberg N.. 1988; Bacteriophage P1. In The Bacteriophages pp.291–438Edited by Calendar R.. New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-3-599
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-3-599
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error