1887

Abstract

chromosomes are linear DNA molecules and yet their genetic maps based on linkage analysis are circular. The only other known examples of this phenomenon are in the bacteriophages T2 and T4, the linear genomic sequences of which are circularly permuted and terminally redundant, and in which replication intermediates include long concatemers. These structural and functional features are not found in . Instead, the circularity of genetic maps appears to be caused by a completely different mechanism postulated by Stahl & Steinberg (1964 , 50, 531–538) – a strong bias toward even numbers of crossovers during recombination creates misleading genetic linkages between markers on the opposite arms of the chromosome. This was demonstrated by physical inspection of the telomeres in recombinant chromosomes after interspecies conjugation promoted by a linear or circular plasmid. The preference for even numbers of crossovers is probably demanded by the merozygosity of the recombining chromosomes, and by the association between the telomeres mediated by interactions of covalently bound terminal proteins.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-9-2209
1999-09-01
2019-10-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/145/9/1452209a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-9-2209&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bibb, M. J. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1981; ). Genetic studies of the fertility plasmid SCP2 and its SCP2* variants in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Gen Mirobiol 126, 427-442.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bibb, M. J., Ward, J. M., Kieser, T., Cohen, S. N. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1981; ). Excision of chromosomal DNA sequences from Streptomyces coelicolor forms a novel family of plasmids detectable in Streptomyces lividans. Mol Gen Genet 184, 230-240.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, C. W. ( 1996; ). Complications and implications of linear bacterial chromosomes. Trends Genet 12, 192-196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen, C. W., Yu, T.-W., Lin, Y. S., Kieser, H. M. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1993; ). The conjugative plasmid SLP2 of Streptomyces lividans is a 50 kb linear molecule. Mol Microbiol 7, 925-932.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Denapaite, D. & Cullum, J. ( 1998; ). Chromosome end of Streptomyces lividans 66 is necessary for the maintenance of the linear plasmid SLP2. In Abstracts of the 141st Ordinary Meeting of the Society for General Microbiology, University of East Anglia, UK, p. 47.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Friend, E. J. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1971; ). The linkage map of Streptomyces rimosus. J Gen Microbiol 68, 187-197.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hopwood, D. A. ( 1965; ). A circular linkage map in the actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor. J Mol Biol 12, 514-516.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hopwood, D. A. ( 1966; ). Lack of constant genome ends in Streptomyces coelicolor. Genetics 54, 1177-1184.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hopwood, D. A. ( 1967; ). Genetic analysis and genome structure in Streptomyces coelicolor. Bacteriol Rev 31, 373-403.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hopwood, D. A. ( 1984; ). Conjugative sex plasmids of Streptomyces. In Plasmids in Bacteria, pp. 615-634. Edited by D. Helinski, S. Cohen & D. Clewell. New York: Plenum.
  11. Hopwood, D. A. & Wright, H. M. ( 1978; ). Bacterial protoplast fusion: recombination in fused protoplasts of Streptomyces coelicolor. Mol Gen Genet 162, 307-317.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hopwood, D. A., Chater, K. F., Dowding, J. E. & Vivian, A. ( 1973; ). Advances in Streptomyces coelicolor genetics. Bacteriol Rev 37, 371-405.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hopwood, D. A., Kieser, T., Wright, H. M. & Bibb, M. J. ( 1983; ). Plasmids, recombination and chromosomal mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66. J Gen Microbiol 129, 2257-2269.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hopwood, D. A., Bibb, M. J., Chater, K. F. & 7 other authors (1985). Genetic Manipulation of Streptomyces: a Laboratory Manual. Norwich: John Innes Foundation.
  15. Huang, C.-H., Lin, Y.-S., Yang, Y.-L., Huang, S.-w. & Chen, C. W. ( 1998; ). The telomeres of Streptomyces chromosomes contain conserved palindromic sequences with potential to form complex secondary structures. Mol Microbiol 28, 905-926.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kieser, T., Hopwood, D. A., Wright, H. M. & Thompson, C. J. ( 1982; ). pIJ101, a multi-copy broad host-range Streptomyces plasmid: functional analysis and development of DNA cloning vectors. Mol Gen Genet 185, 223-238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kieser, H. M., Henderson, D. J., Chen, C. W. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1989; ). A mutation of Streptomyces lividans which prevents intraplasmid recombination has no effect on chromosomal recombination. Mol Gen Genet 220, 60-64.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kieser, H. M., Kieser, T. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1992; ). A combined genetic and physical map of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) chromosome. J Bacteriol 174, 5496-5507.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kinashi, H. & Shimaji-Murayama, M. ( 1991; ). Physical characterization of SCP1, a giant linear plasmid from Streptomyces coelicolor. J Bacteriol 173, 1523-1529.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kirby, R. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1977; ). Genetic determination of methylenomycin synthesis by the SCP1 plasmid of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Gen Microbiol 98, 239-252.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Leblond, P., Redenbach, M. & Cullum, J. ( 1993; ). Physical map of the Streptomyces lividans 66 genome and comparison with that of the related strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Bacteriol 175, 3422-3429.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lezhava, A. L., Mizukami, T., Kajitani, T., Kameoka, D., Redenbach, M., Shinkawa, H., Nimi, O. & Kinashi, H. ( 1995; ). Physical map of the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus. J Bacteriol 177, 6492-6498.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lin, Y.-L. (1998). Involvement of terminal sequence of the Streptomyces chromosome in the maintenance of linear plasmids. MSc thesis, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei.
  24. Lin, Y.-S., Kieser, H. M., Hopwood, D. A. & Chen, C. W. ( 1993; ). The chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces lividans 66 is linear. Mol Microbiol 10, 923-933.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lydiate, D. J., Malpartida, F. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1985; ). The Streptomyces plasmid SCP2*: its functional analysis and development into useful cloning vectors. Gene 35, 223-235.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ortin, J., Vinuela, E., Salas, M. & Vasquez, C. ( 1971; ). DNA–protein complex in circular DNA from phage ϕ29. Nature New Biol 234, 275-277.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pandza, K., Pfalzer, G., Cullum, J. & Hranueli, D. ( 1997; ). Physical mapping shows that the unstable oxytetracycline gene cluster of Streptomyces rimosus lies close to one end of the linear chromosome. Microbiology 143, 1493-1501.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Qin, Z. & Cohen, S. N. ( 1998; ). Replication at the telomeres of the Streptomyces linear plasmid pSLA2. Mol Microbiol 28, 893-904.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Redenbach, M., Flett, F., Piendl, W., Glocker, I., Rauland, U., Wafzig, O., Leblond, P. & Cullum, J. ( 1993; ). The Streptomyces lividans 66 chromosome contains a 1 Mb deletogenic region flanked by two amplifiable regions. Mol Gen Genet 241, 255-262.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Robinson, A. J., Younghusband, H. B. & Bellett, A. J. ( 1973; ). A circular DNA–protein complex from adenoviruses. Virology 56, 54-69.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Stahl, F. W. ( 1967; ). Circular genetic maps. J Cell Physiol 70, 1-12.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stahl, F. W. & Steinberg, C. M. ( 1964; ). The theory of formal phage genetics for circular maps. Genetics 50, 531-538.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Streisinger, G., Edgar, R. S. & Denhardt, G. H. ( 1964; ). Chromosome structure in phage T4. I. Circularity of the linkage map. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 51, 775-779.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tsai, J. F.-Y. & Chen, C. W. ( 1987; ). Isolation and characterization of Streptomyces lividans mutants deficient in intraplasmid recombination. Mol Gen Genet 208, 211-218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wright, L. F. & Hopwood, D. A. ( 1976; ). Identification of the antibiotic determined by the SCP1 plasmid of S. coelicolor A3(2). J Gen Microbiol 95, 96-106.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wu, M.-Y. (1994). Analyses of the linear plasmid SLP2 of Streptomyces lividans 66. MSc thesis, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei.
  37. Zhou, X., Deng, Z., Firmin, J. L., Hopwood, D. A. & Kieser, T. ( 1988; ). Site-specific degradation of Streptomyces lividans DNA during electrophoresis in buffers contaminated with ferrous iron. Nucleic Acids Res 16, 4341-4354.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-9-2209
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-9-2209
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error