1887

Abstract

The cyclic tetrapeptide HC-toxin is required for pathogenicity of the filamentous fungus on maize. HC- toxin production is controlled by a complex locus, . The isolation and characterization of a new gene of the locus, , is reported. It is shown that is specifically required for HC-toxin production and pathogenicity. It is present as two or three copies in all HC-toxin-producing (Tox2) isolates and is absent in toxin-non-producing strains. The deduced amino acid sequence of has moderate homology to many known or putative branched-chain-amino-acid transaminases from various species. A strain of with all copies of disrupted grew normally but lost HC-toxin production and pathogenicity. It is proposed that has a biosynthetic role in HC-toxin synthesis, perhaps to aminate a precursor of Aeo (2- amino-9,10-epoxi-8-oxodecanoic acid).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3539
1999-12-01
2020-04-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/145/12/1453539a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3539&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahn J.-H., Walton J. D.. 1996; Chromosomal organization of TOX2, a complex locus controlling host- selective toxin biosynthesis in Cochliobolus carbonum. Plant Cell8:887–897[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahn J.-H., Walton J. D.. 1997; A fatty acid synthase gene in Cochliobolus carbonum required for production of HC- toxin, cyclo(d-prolyl-l-alanyl-d-alanyl-l-2-amino-9,10-epoxi-8- oxodecanoyl). Mol Plant–Microbe Interact10:207–214[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahn J.-H., Walton J. D.. 1998; Regulation of cyclic peptide biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Cochliobolus carbonum by TOXEp, a novel protein with a bZIP basic DNA-binding motif and four ankyrin repeats. Mol Gen Genet260:462–469
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alexander F. W., Sandmeier E., Mehta P. K., Christen P.. 1994; Evolutionary relationships among pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes: regio-specific α, β and γ families. Eur J Biochem219:953–960[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Altschul S. F., Madden T. L., Schäffer A. A., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Miller W., Lipman D. J.. 1997; Gapped blast and psi- blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. . Nucleic Acids Res25:3389–3402[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown D. W., Yu J.-H., Kelkar, H. S., Fernandes M., Nesbit T. C., Keller N. P., Adams T. H., Leonard T. J.. 1996; Twenty-five coregulated transcripts define a sterigmatocystin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA93:1418–1422[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carroll A. M., Sweigard J. A., Valent B.. 1994; Improved vectors for selecting resistance to hygromycin. Fungal Genet Newsl41:22
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cheng Y.-Q., Le L. D., Walton J. D., Bishop K. D.. 1999; 13C labeling indicates that the epoxide-containing amino acid of HC-toxin is biosynthesized by head-to-tail condensation of acetate . J Nat Prod62:143–145[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Eden A., Simchen G., Benvenisty N.. 1996; Two yeast homologs of ECA39 , a target for c-Myc regulation, code for cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases. . J Biol Chem271:20242–20245[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Frohman M. A., Dush M. K., Martin G. R.. 1988; Rapid production of full length cDNAs from rare transcripts: amplification using a single gene-specific oligonucleotide primer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA85:8998–9002[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hutson S. M., Bledsoe R. K., Hall T. R., Dawson P. A.. 1995; Cloning and expression of the mammalian cytosolic branched chain aminotransferase isoenzyme. . J Biol Chem270:30344–30352[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hynes M. J., Corrick C. M., King J. A.. 1983; Isolation of genomic clones containing the amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans and their use in the analysis of structural and regulatory mutations. Mol Cell Biol3:1430–1439
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kennedy J., Auclair K., Kendrew S. G., Park C., Vederas J. C., Hutchinson C. R.. 1999; Modulation of polyketide synthase activity by accessory proteins during lovastatin biosynthesis. Science284:1368–1372[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kispal G., Steiner H., Court D. A., Rolinski B., Lill R.. 1996; Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched- chain transaminase from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein. J Biol Chem271:24458–24464[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lu S., Lyngholm L., Yang G., Bronson C., Yoder O. C., Turgeon B. G.. 1994; Tagged mutations at the Tox1 locus of Cochliobolus heterostrophus by restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA91:12649–12653[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meeley R. B., Walton J. D.. 1991; Enzymatic detoxification by maize of the host-specific toxin HC-toxin. . Plant Physiol97:1080–1086[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mehta P. K., Hale T. I., Christen P.. 1993; Aminotransferases: demonstration of homology and division into evolutionary subgroups. Eur J Biochem214:549–560[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Monaco A. P., Larin Z.. 1994; YACs, BACs, PACs and MACs: artificial chromosomes as research tools. Trends Biotechnol12:280–286[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nakai K., Kanehisa M.. 1992; A knowledge base for predicting protein localization sites in eukaryotic cells. Genomics14:897–911[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nelson R. R., Ullstrup A. J.. 1961; The inheritance of pathogenicity in Cochliobolus carbonum. Phytopathology51:1–2
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nielsen H., Engelbrecht J., Brunak S., von Heijne G.. 1997; Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Protein Eng10:1–6[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Okada K., Hirotsu K., Sato M., Hayashi H., Kagamiyama H.. 1997; Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase at 2·5 Å resolution. J Biochem121:637–641[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Panaccione D. G., Scott-Craig J. S., Pocard J.-A., Walton J. D.. 1992; A cyclic peptide synthetase gene required for pathogenicity of the fungus Cochliobolus carbonum on maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA89:6590–6594[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pitkin J. W., Panaccione D. G., Walton J. D.. 1996; A putative cyclic peptide efflux pump encoded by the TOXA gene of the plant- pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. Microbiology142:1557–1565[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T.. 1989; Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Scheffer R. P., Nelson R. R., Ullstrup A. J.. 1967; Inheritance of toxin production and pathogenicity in Cochliobolus carbonum and Cochliobolus victoriae. Phytopathology57:1288–1289
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Scott-Craig J. S., Panaccione D. G., Pocard J.-A., Walton J. D.. 1992; The multifunctional cyclic peptide synthetase catalyzing HC-toxin production in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus carbonum is encoded by a 15·7-kilobase open reading frame. J Biol Chem267:26044–26049
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sugio S., Petsko G. A., Manning J. M., Soda K., Ringe D.. 1995; Crystal structure of d-amino acid aminotransferase: how the protein controls stereoselectivity. . Biochemistry34:9661–9669[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sweigard J. A., Carroll A. M., Farrall L., Chumley F. G., Valent B.. 1998; Magnaporthe grisea pathogenicity genes obtained through insertional mutagenesis. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact11:404–412[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tanizawa K., Asano S., Masu Y., Kuramitsu S., Kagamiyama H., Tanaka H., Soda K.. 1989; The primary structure of thermostable d- amino acid aminotransferase from a thermophilic Bacillus species and its correlation with l-amino acid aminotransferases. J Biol Chem264:2450–2454
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G., Gibson T. J.. 1994; clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res22:4673–4680[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Trapp S. C., Hohn T. M., McCormick S., Jarvis B. B.. 1998; Characterization of the gene cluster for biosynthesis of macrocyclic trichothecenes in Myrothecium roridum. Mol Gen Genet257:421–432[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tudzynski B., Hölter K.. 1998; Gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in Gibberella fujikuroi: evidence for a gene cluster. Fungal Genet Biol25:157–170[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Walton J. D.. 1987; Two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the host-selective phytotoxin HC-toxin. . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA84:8444–8447[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Walton J. D.. 1996; Host-selective toxins: agents of compatibility. Plant Cell8:1723–1733[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Walton J. D., Earle E. D., Gibson B. W.. 1982; Purification and structure of the host-specific toxin from Helminthosporium carbonum race 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun107:785–794[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Woo, S.-S., Gill B. S., Paterson A. H., Wing R. A.. 1994; Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Sorghum bicolor. Nucleic Acids Res22:4922–4931[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Yu J., Chang P.-K., Cary J. W., Wright M., Bhatnagar D., Cleveland T. E., Payne G. A., Linz J. E.. 1995; Comparative mapping of aflatoxin pathway gene clusters in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Appl Environ Microbiol61:2365–2371
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Zhu H., Choi S., Johnson A. K., Wing R. A., Dean R. A.. 1997; A large-insert (130 kbp) bacterial artificial chromosome library of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea: genome analysis, contig assembly, and gene cloning. Fungal Genet Biol21:337–347[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3539
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3539
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error