1887

Abstract

Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP-T) represent a novel type of secondary active transporter that functions in conjunction with an extracytoplasmic solute-binding receptor. The best characterized TRAP-T family member is from and is specific for C-dicarboxylates [Forward, J. A., Behrendt, M. C., Wyborn, N. R., Cross, R. & Kelly, D. J. (1997). 179, 5482–5493]. It consists of three essential proteins, DctP, a periplasmic C-dicarboxylate-binding receptor, and two integral membrane proteins, DctM and DctQ, which probably span the membrane 12 and 4 times, respectively. Homologues of DctM, DctP and DctQ were identified in all major bacterial subdivisions as well as in archaea. An orphan DctP homologue in the Gram-positive bacterium may serve as a receptor for a two- component transcriptional regulatory system rather than as a constituent of a TRAP-T system. Phylogenetic data suggest that all present day TRAP-T systems probably evolved from a single ancestral transporter with minimal shuffling of constituents between systems. Homologous TRAP-T constituents exhibit decreasing degrees of sequence identity in the order DctM>DctP>DctQ. DctM appears to belong to a large superfamily of transporters, the ion transporter (IT) superfamily, one member of which can function by either protonmotive force- or ATP-dependent energization. It is proposed that IT superfamily members exhibit the unusual capacity to function in conjunction with auxiliary proteins that modify the transport process by providing (i) high-affinity solute reception, (ii) altered energy coupling and (iii) additional yet to be defined functions.

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1999-12-01
2022-01-21
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