1887

Abstract

Three strains of producing various amounts of PS2 S-layer protein were studied. For all strains, more PS2 was produced if the bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with lactate than if they were grown in minimal medium supplemented with glucose. The consumption of substrate and PS2 production was studied in cultures with mixed carbon sources. It was found that the inhibitory effect of glucose consumption was stronger than the stimulatory effect of lactate in one strain, but not in the other two strains. The regulation of gene expression involved in S-layer formation may involve metabolic pathways, which probably differ between strains. S-layer organization was also studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. It was found that low levels of PS2 production correlated with the partial covering of the cell surface by a crystalline array. Finally, it was found that PS2 production was mainly regulated by changes in gene expression and that secretion was probably not a limiting step in PS2 accumulation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3399
1999-12-01
2019-12-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/145/12/1453399a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3399&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adachi, T. , Yamagata, H. , Tsukagoshi, N. & Udaka, S. ( 1989; ). Multiple and tandemly arranged promoters of the cell wall protein gene operon in Bacillus brevis 47. J Bacteriol 171, 1010-1016 .
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adachi, T. , Yamagata, H. , Tsukagoshi, N. & Udaka, S. ( 1991; ). Repression of the cell wall protein gene operon in Bacillus brevis 47 by magnesium and calcium ions. J Bacteriol 173, 4243-4245 .
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aggerbeck, L. P. L. & Gulik-Krzywicki, T. ( 1986; ). Studies of lipoproteins by freeze-fracture and etching electron microscopy. Methods Enzymol 128, 457-472.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Apostolakos, D. , Menter, P. A. , Rampsch, B. J. , Reeves, H. C. & Birge, E. A. ( 1982; ). Genetic map position of the cistron coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. Curr Microbiol 7, 45-47.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ausubel, F. M., Brent, R., Kingston, R. E., Moore, D. D., Seidman, J. G., Smith, J. A. & Struhl, K. (1987). Currents Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: Wiley.
  6. Bahl, H., Scholz, H., Bayan, N. & 27 other authors ( 1997; ). Molecular biology of S-layers. FEMS Microbiol Rev 20, 47–98.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bayan, N. , Schrempp, S. , Joliff, G. , Leblon, G. & Shechter, E. ( 1993; ). Role of the protonmotive force and of the state of the lipids in in vivo protein secretion in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a gram-positive bacterium. Biochim Biophys Acta 1146, 97-105.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Beveridge, T. J., Pouwels, P. H., S ra, M. & 22 other authors ( 1997; ). Functions of S-layers. FEMS Microbiol Rev 20, 99–149.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Birnboim, H. C. & Doly, J. ( 1979; ). A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 7, 1513-1523.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonamy, C. , Guyonvarch, A. , Reyes, O. , David, F. & Leblon, G. ( 1990; ). Interspecies electro-transformation in Corynebacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 54, 263-269.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Boot, H. J. & Pouwels, P. H. ( 1996; ). Expression, secretion and antigenic variation of bacterial S-layer proteins. Mol Microbiol 21, 1117-1123 .[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boot, H. J. , Kolen, C. P. A. M. , Andreaki, F. J. , Leer, R. J. & Pouwels, P. H. ( 1996a; ). The Lactobacillus acidophilus S-layer protein gene expression site comprises two consensus promoter sequences, one of which directs transcription of stable mRNA. J Bacteriol 178, 5388-5394 .
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Boot, H. J. , Kolen, C. P. A. M. & Pouwels, P. H. ( 1996b; ). Interchange of the active and silent S-protein genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus by inversion of the chromosomal slp segment. Mol Microbiol 21, 799-809.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Breitwieser, A. , Gruber, K. & Sleytr, U. B. ( 1992; ). Evidence for an S- layer protein pool in the peptidoglycan of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J Bacteriol 174, 8008-8015 .
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Casadaban, M. J. , Chou, J. & Cohen, S. N. ( 1980; ). In vitro gene fusions that join an enzymatically active β-galactosidase segment to amino-terminal fragments of exogenous proteins: Escherichia coli plasmid vectors for the detection and cloning of translational initiation signals. J Bacteriol 143, 971-980.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chami, M. , Bayan, N. , Dedieu, J. C. , Leblon, G. , Shechter, E. & Gulik-Krzywicki, T. ( 1995; ). Organization of the outer layers of the cell envelope of Corynebacterium glutamicum: a combined freeze-etch electronmicroscopy and biochemical study. Biol Cell 83, 219-229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chu, S. , Gustafson, C. E. , Feutrier, J. , Cavaignac, S. & Trust, T. J. ( 1993; ). Transcriptional analysis of the Aeromonas salmonicida S-layer protein gene vapA. J Bacteriol 175, 7968-7975 .
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cocaign, M. (1992). Croissance de Corynebacterium glutamicum sur divers substrats et répartition des flux dans les voies du métabolisme central. PhD thesis, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse .
  19. Cocaign-Bousquet, M. & Lindley, N. D. ( 1995; ). Pyruvate overflow and carbon flux within the central metabolic pathways of Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on lactate. Enzyme Microb Technol 17, 260-267.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cocaign-Bousquet, M. , Guyonvarch, A. & Lindley, N. D. ( 1996; ). Growth rate dependent modulation of carbon flux through central metabolism and the kinetic consequences for glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 429-436.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Debay, F. (1997). Etude cinétique de la fermentation glutamique par C. glutamicum et caractérisation physiologique par cytom étrie en flux. PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine.
  22. Dwokin, J. & Blaser, M. J. ( 1996; ). Generation of Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein diversity utilizes a single promoter on an inversible DNA segment. Mol Microbiol 19, 1241-1253 .[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Eikmanns, B. J. , Rittman, D. & Sahm, H. ( 1995; ). Cloning, sequence analysis, expression, and inactivation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum icd gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase and biochemical characterization of the enzyme. J Bacteriol 177, 774-782.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Fernández-Herrero, L. A. , Olabarrı́a, G. & Berenguer, J. ( 1997; ). Surface proteins and a novel transcription factor regulate the expression of the S-layer gene in Thermus thermophilus HB8. Mol Microbiol 24, 61-72.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fisher, J. A. , Smit, J. & Agabian, N. ( 1988; ). Transcriptional analysis of the major surface array gene of Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol 170, 4706-4713 .
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Garcia, M. M. , Lutze-Wallace, C. L. , Denes, A. S. , Eaglesome, M. D. , Holst, E. & Blaser, M. J. ( 1995; ). Protein shift and antigenic variation in the S-layer of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis during bovine infection accompanied by genomic rearrangment of sapA homologs. J Bacteriol 177, 1976-1980 .
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gulik-Krzywicki, T. & Costello, M. J. ( 1978; ). The use of low temperature X-ray diffraction to evaluate freezing methods used in freeze-fracture electron microscopy. J Microsc 112, 103-113.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Joliff, G. , Mathieu, L. , Hahn, V. , Bayan, N. , Duchiron, F. , Renaud, M. , Shechter, E. & Leblon, G. ( 1992; ). Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the csp1 gene encoding PS1, one of the two major secreted proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum: the deduced N-terminal region of PS1 is similar to the Mycobacterium antigen 85 complex. Mol Microbiol 6, 2349-2362.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kahala, M. , Savoijoki, K. & Palva, A. ( 1997; ). In vivo expression of Lactobacillus brevis S-layer gene. J Bacteriol 179, 284-286.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Labarre, J. , Reyes, O. , Guyonvarch, A. & Leblon, G. ( 1993; ). Gene replacement, integration, and amplification at the gdhA locus of Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Bacteriol 175, 1001-1007 .
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680-685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lewis, L. O. , Yousten, A. A. & Murray, R. G. E. ( 1987; ). Characterization of the surface protein layers of the mosquito- pathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus. J Bacteriol 169, 72-79.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Liebl, W. & Sinskey, A. J. ( 1988; ). Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene involved in the production of extracellular DNase by Corynebacterium glutamicum. In Genetics and Biotechnology of Bacilli, pp. 383-388. Edited by A. T. Ganesan & J. A. Hoch. New York: Academic Press.
  34. Messner, P. & Sleytr, U. B. ( 1992; ). Crystalline bacterial cell-surface layers. Adv Microbiol Physiol 33, 213-275.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mondain-Monval, F. (1988). Cinétiques, modé lisation et développement d’estimateurs de la fermentation glutamique. PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine.
  36. Olabarrı́a, G. , Carrascosa, J. L. , De Pedro, M. A. & Berenguer, J. ( 1996; ). slpM, a gene coding for an ‘S-layer-like array’ overexpressed in S-layer mutants of Thermus thermophilus HB8. J Bacteriol 178, 357-365.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Peyret, J. L. , Bayan, N. , Joliff, G. , Gulik-Krzywicki, T. , Mathieu, L. , Shechter, E. & Leblon, G. ( 1993; ). Characterization of the cspB gene encoding PS2, an ordered surface-layer protein in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Mol Microbiol 9, 97-109.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pons, A. , Dussap, C. G. , Pequignot, C. & Gros, J. B. ( 1996; ). Metabolic flux distribution in Corynebacterium melassecola ATCC17965 for various carbon sources. Biotechnol Bioeng 51, 177-189.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Reyes, O. , Guyonvarch, A. , Bonamy, C. , Salti, V. , David, F. & Leblon, G. ( 1991; ). ‘Integron’-bearing vectors: a method suitable for stable chromosomal integration in highly restrictive corynebacteria. Gene 107, 61-68.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rollin, C. , Morgant, V. , Guyonvarch, A. & Guerquin-Kern, J. L. ( 1995; ). 13C- NMR studies of Corynebacterium melassecola metabolic pathways. Eur J Biochem 227, 488-493.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sára, M. & Sleytr, U. B. ( 1994; ). Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-limited and non-oxygen-limited conditions. J Bacteriol 176, 7182-7189 .
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sára, M. , Kuen, B. , Mayer, H. F. , Mandl, F. , Schuster, K. C. & Sleytr, U. B. ( 1996; ). Dynamics in oxygen- induced changes in S-layer protein synthesis from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72 and the S-layer-deficient variant T5 in continuous culture and studies of the cell wall composition. J Bacteriol 178, 2108-2117 .
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sleytr, U. B. & Glauert, A. M. ( 1976; ). Ultrastructure of the cell walls of two closely related clostridia that possess different regular arrays of surface subunits. J Bacteriol 126, 869-882.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sleytr, U. B. & Messner, P. ( 1989; ). Self-assembly of bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers). In Electron Microscopy of Subcellular Dynamics, pp. 13-31. Edited by H. Plattner. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  45. Sleytr, U. B. , Messner, P. , Pum, D. & Sára, M. ( 1996; ). Occurrence, location, ultrastructure and morphogenesis of S-layers. In Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Proteins, pp. 5-33. Edited by U. B. Sleytr, P. Messner, D. Pum & M. Sára. Austin, TX:: R. G. Landes/Academic Press.
  46. Trautwetter, A. & Blanco, C. ( 1988; ). Isolation and preliminary characterization of twenty bacteriophages infecting either Brevibacterium or Arthrobacter strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 54, 1466-1471 .
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Trieu-Cuot, P. & Courvalin, P. ( 1983; ). Nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid gene encoding the 3′5′- aminoglycoside phosphotransferase type III. Gene 23, 331-341.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Von der Osten, C. H. , Gioannetti, C. & Sinskey, A. J. ( 1989; ). Design of a defined medium for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum in which citrate facilitates iron uptake. Biotechnol Lett 11, 11-16.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yanisch-Perron, C. , Vieira, J. & Messing, J. ( 1985; ). Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene 33, 103-119.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3399
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-145-12-3399
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error