Summary: The distribution of carbon from glucose and glutamate was studied using anaerobically grown . The yeast was grown on glucose (20 g I-) as the carbon/energy source and glutamic acid (3.5 g I) as additional carbon and sole nitrogen source. The products formed were identified using labelled [U-C]glucose or [U-C]glutamic acid. A seldom-reported metabolite in 2–hydroxyglutarate, was found in significant amounts. It is suggested that 2-hydroxyglutarate is formed from the reduction of 2-oxoglutarate in a reaction catalysed by a dehydrogenase. Succinate, 2-oxoglutarate and 2-hydroxyglutarate were found to be derived exclusively from glutamate. Based on radioactivity measurements, 55%, 17% and 14% of the labelled glutamate was converted to 2-oxoglutarate, succinate and 2-hydroxyglutarate, respectively, and 55%, 9% and 3% of the labelled glucose was converted to ethanol, glycerol and pyruvate, respectively. No labelled glucose was converted to 2-oxoglutarate, succinate or 2-hydroxyglutarate. Furthermore, very little of the evolved CO was derived from glutamate. Separation of the amino acids from biomass by paper chromatography revealed that the glutamate family of amino acids (glutamic acid, glutamine, proline, arginine and lysine) originated almost exclusively from the carbon skeleton of glutamic acid. It can be concluded that the carbon flow follows two separate paths, and that the only major reactions utilized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are those reactions involved in the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate.


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