1887

Abstract

Among the wall-less mycoplasmas only a few species have been identified with a capsule at their cell surface. is a recently identified mycoplasma with unique morphology, isolated from HIV-infected patients. Using transmission electron microscopy, it was found that is surrounded by capsular material 11 nm (strain GTU-54-6A1) to 30 nm (strain HF-2) thick, which can be stained with ruthenium red and labelled with cationized ferritin. The polysaccharide composition of this capsule was indicated by its staining with periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide silver proteinate and the abolition of ruthenium red staining of the cell surface by neuraminidase treatment. In addition, proteinase K treatment of the cells resulted in removal of the capsule, suggesting that polypeptides may contribute in anchoring it to the membrane or in its stability. Two different types of glycosylated material were detected in mycoplasma extracts by SDS-PAGE and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The first component was a high-molecular-mass material, which was heat- and proteinase-K-labile and which probably constitutes the capsular polymer. The other component was a low-molecular-mass glycolipid fraction, which was proteinase-K-, heat- and EDTA-resistant. The identification of a capsule at the cell surface is of particular interest for a mycoplasma which has been shown to adhere to various host cells and to penetrate into their intracellular compartments. The capsule may have significance in the pathogenesis of disease associated with infection by this organism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-5-1247
1998-05-01
2021-05-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/144/5/mic-144-5-1247.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-5-1247&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Almeida, R., Rosenbusch, R. (1991); Capsulelike surface material of Mycoplasma dispar induced by in vitro growth in culture with bovine cells is antigenically related to similar structures expressed in vivo.. Infect bnmun 59:3119–3125
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Almeida, R., Wannemuehler, M., Rosenbusch, R. (1992); Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar with bovine alveolar macrophages.. Infection and Immunity 60:(7)2914–2919 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andreev, J., Borovsky, Z., Rosenshine, I., Rottem, S. (1995); Invasion of HeLa cells by Mycoplasma penetrans and the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of a 145-kDa host cell protein.. Fems Microbiology Letters 132:(3)189–194 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ben-Menachem, G., Wagner, F., Zahringer, U., Rietschel, E. T., Rottem, S. (1997); Antibody response to MfGL-II, a phospho-choline-containing major lipid of Mycoplasma fermentans membranes.. Fems Microbiology Letters 154:(2)363–369 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blanchard, A., Montagnier, L. (1994); AIDS-associated mycoplasmas.. Anna Rev Microbiol 48:(1)687–712 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blanchard, A., Gougeon, M.-L., Montagnier, L. (1997); Influence of microbial infection on the progression of HIV disease.. Trends in Microbiology 5:(8)326–331 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brenner, C., Neyrolles, O., Blanchard, A. (1996); Mycoplasmas and HIV infection: from epidemiology to their interaction with immune cells.. Frontiers in Bioscience 1:(5)42–54 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Buttery, S. H. (1970); Hapten inhibition of the reaction between Mycoplasma mycoides polysaccharide and bovine antisera.. Immunocbemistry 7:(3)305–310 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Buttery, S. H., Plackett, P. (1960); A specific polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides.. Journal of General Microbiology 23:(2)357–368 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cross, A. (1990); The biological significance of bacterial encapsulation.. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 150:87–95
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Feng, S. H., Lo, S.-C. (1994); Induced mouse spleen B-cell proliferation and secretion of immunoglobulin by lipid-associated membrane proteins of M.. fermentans incognitas and M. penetrans. Infect Immun 62:(9)3916–3921 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ferris, S., Watson, H. L., Neyrolles O., Montagnier, L., Blanchard, A. (1995); Characterization of a major Mycoplasma penetrans lipoprotein and of its gene.. Fems Microbiology Letters 130:(2–3)313–320 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Furness, G., Whitescarver, J., Trocola M, DeMaggio, M. (1976); Morphology, ultrastructure, and mode of division of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hominis.. Mycoplasma orale, and Mycoplasma salivarium. J Infect Dis 134:(3)224–229 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gerard, C. (1990); Purification of glycoproteins.. Methods in Enzymology, Vol 46: Research on Nitrification and Related Processes, Pt B 182:529–539
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Giron, J., Lange, M., Baseman, J. (1996); Adherence, fibronectin binding, and induction of cytoskeleton reorganization in cultured human cells by Mycoplasma penetrans.. Infection and Immunity 64:(1)197–208 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grau, O., Slizewicz, B., Tuppin, P. (1995) & 10 other authors, Association of Mycoplasma penetrans with human immunodeficiency virus infection.. Journal of Infectious Diseases 172:(3)672–681 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Green, F., Hanson, R. (1973); Ultrastructure and capsule of Mycoplasma meleagridis.. Journal of Bacteriology 116:(2)1011–1018 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Howard, C. J., Gourlay, R. N. (1974); An electron-microscopic examination of certain bovine mycoplasmas stained with ruthenium red and the demonstration of a capsule on Mycoplasma dispar.. Journal of General Microbiology 83:(2)393–398 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jones, A. S., Tittensor, J. R., Walker, R. T. (1965); The chemical composition of the nucleic acids and other macromolecular constituents of Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri.. I Gen Microbiol 40:(3)405–411 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kamerling, J. P., Gerwig, G. J., Vliegenthart, J. F., Clamp, J. R. (1975); Characterization by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of pertrimethylsilyl methyl glycosides obtained in the methanolysis of glycoproteins and gly copeptides.. Biochemical Journal 151:(3)491–495 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kasper, D. L. (1986); Bacterial capsules — old dogmas and new tricks.. Journal of Infectious Diseases 153:(3)407–415 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kirkeby, S., Moe, D., Bog-Hansen, T., Garbarsch, C., Matthiessen, M. E. (1992); Quantitative PAS assay of some carbohydrate compounds and detergents.. J Biocbem Biophys Methods 24:(3–4)225–238 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Laemmli, U. K., Lesse, A., Campagnari, A., Bittner, W., Apicella, M. (1970); Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Increased resolution of lipopolysaccharides and lipooligo-saccharides utilizing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.. Nature 227:(5259)680–685 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lo, S.-C., Hayes, M. M., Wang, R. Y., Pierce, P., Kotani, H., Shih J. W.-K. (1991); Newly discovered mycoplasma isolated from patients infected with HIV.. Lancet 338:(8780)1415–1416 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lo, S.-C., Hayes, M. M., Kotani, H., Pierce, P., Wear, D. et al. (1993); Adhesion onto and invasion into mammalian cells by Mycoplasma penetrans: a newly isolated mycoplasma from patients with AIDS.. Mod Pathol 6:276–280
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Marshall, A., Miles, R., Richards L. (1995); The phagocytosis of mycoplasmas.. Journal of Medical Microbiology 43:(4)239–250 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Matsuda, K., Harasawa, R., Li, J. L., Kasama, T., Taki, T., Handa S., Yamamoto N. (1995); Identification of phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipids purified from Mycoplasma fermentans- infected human helper T-cell culture as components of M. fermentans.. Microbiology and Immunology 39:(5)307–313 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Matsuda, K., Harasawa, R., Yamamoto N. (1997); Phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipids (GGPL-I and GGPL-III) are species-specific major immunodeterminants of Mycoplasma fermentans.. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233:(3)644–649 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Moxon, E., Kroll, J. (1990); The role of bacterial polysaccharide capsules as virulence factors.. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 150:65–85
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rawadi, G., Roman-Roman S. (1996); Mycoplasma membrane lipoproteins induce proinflammatory cytokines by a mechanism distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide.. Infection and Immunity 64:(2)637–643 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Robertson, J., Smook E. (1976); Cytochemical evidence of extramembraneous carbohydrates on Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain mycoplasma).. Journal of Bacteriology 128:(2)658–660 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rosenbusch, R., Minion, F. (1992) Cell envelope: morphology and biochemistry. Edited by Maniloff, J. Mycoplasmas. Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology,;73–77
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sadawardeker, J., Sloneker, J., Jeanes A. (1965); Quantitative determination of monosaccharides as their alditol acetates by gas liquid chromatography.. Analytical Biochemistry 37:1602–1604
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sasaki, Y., Blanchard, A., Watson, H. L., Garcia, S., Dulioust, A., Montagnier L., Gougeon M.-L. (1995); In vitro influence of Mycoplasma penetrans on activation of peripheral T-lymphocytes from healthy donors or HIV-infected individuals.. Infection and Immunity 63:(11)3916–3921 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Smith, P. F. (1985); Detection of lipoglycans in ureaplasmas.. Journal of Bacteriology 162:(2)611–614 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smith, P. F. (1992) Membrane lipids and lipopolysaccharide structures. Edited by Maniloff, J. Mycoplasmas. Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology,;79–91
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tajima, M., Yagihashi T. (1982); Interaction of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with the porcine respiratory epithelium as observed by electron microscopy.. Infection and Immunity 37:(3)1162–1169 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tajima, M., Yagihashi, T., Miki Y. (1982); Capsular material of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and its possible relevance to the pathogenic process.. Infection and Immunity 36:(2)830–833 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Taylor-Robinson, D., Furr, M., Davies, H., Manchee, R. (8c Bov6, J, 1981); Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma pulmonis.. Isr J Med Sci 17:599–603
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Thiery, J. P. (1967); Mise en evidence des polysaccharides sur coupes fines en microscopie electronique.. J Microsc 6:987–1018
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tully, J., Whitcomb, R., Clarck, H., Williamson D. (1977); Pathogenic mycoplasmas: cultivation and vertebrate pathogenicity of a new spiroplasma. Science 195892–894
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wang, R., Shih, J., Weiss, S., Grandinetti, T., Pierce, P. et al. (1993); Mycoplasma penetrans infection in male homosexuals with AIDS: high seroprevalence and association with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Clinical Infectious Diseases 17724–729
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Whitfield, C. (1988); Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides.. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 34:(4)415–420 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Wilson, M., Collier A. (1976); Ultrastructural study of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in organ culture.. Journal of Bacteriology 125:(1)332–339 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Zahringer, U., Wagner, F., Rietschel, E. T., Ben-Menachem, G., Deutsch, J. et al. (1997); Primary structure of a new phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipid of Mycoplasma fermentans.. Journal of Biological Chemistry 17:(42)26262–26270 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-5-1247
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-5-1247
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error