1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: The genes responsible for cell wall biosynthesis and cell division (dcw genes) were identified and sequenced in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The genetic organization of the dcw cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae differed significantly from the clusters of other bacteria reported to date. In particular, the genes corresponding to the 2 min region of the Escherichia colichromosome were found distributed in three genetically separate regions of the Streptococcus pneumoniae chromosome. The first region contained the expected ftsA and ftsZ cell division genes at one end and pbp2b, ddl and murF at the o her end. The murD, murG and diw/B genes, always found located upstream of ftsA, were found in a second region separated from the first. A third region contained the yllC, yllD, pbp2x and mraY genes. The chromosomal region downstream of ftsZ was also sequenced and characterized. In Streptococcus pneumoniae this region contains four ORFs, all of unknown function, and an ORF encoding the Bacillus subtilis DivlVA homologue. The gene order and the organization of this region was found to be conserved in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis, raising the possibility that previously unidentified loci may also be involved in division.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-11-3069
1998-11-01
2022-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/144/11/mic-144-11-3069.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-11-3069&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S.F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E.W., Lipman D.J. 1990; Basic local alignment search tool.. J Mol Biol 215:403–410
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul S.F., Madden T.L., Schaffer A.A., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Miller W., Lipman D.J. 1997; Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3389–3402
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ausubel F.M., Brent R., Kingston R.E., Moore D.D., Seidman J.G., Struhl K. 1991 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ayala J.A., Garrido T., de Pedro M.A., Vicente M. 1994; Molecular biology of bacterial septation.. In Bacterial Cell Wall pp. 73–102 Ghuysen J.-M., Hakenbeck R. Edited by Amsterdam: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Buchanan C.E., Henriques A.O., Piggot P.J. 1994; Cell wall changes during bacterial endospore formation. . In Bacterial Cell Wall pp. 167–186 Ghuysen J.-M., Hakenbeck R. Edited by Amsterdam: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cam K., Rome G., Krisch H.M., Bouche J.P. 1996; RNase E processing of essential cell division genes mRNA in Escherichia coli. . Nucleic Acids Res 24:3065–3070
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cha J.H., Stewart G.C. 1997; The divlVA minicell locus of Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 179:1671–1683
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chalker A.F., Ward J.M., Fosberry A.P., Hodgson i.E. 1994; Analysis and toxic overexpression in Escherichia coli of a staphylococcal gene encoding isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase.. Gene 141:103–108
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Daniel R.A., Errington J. 1993; DNA sequence of the murE-murD region of Bacillus subtilis 168.. J Gen Microbiol 139:361–370
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Daniel R.A., Drake S., Buchanan C.E., Scholle R., Errington J. 1994; The Bacillus subtilis spoVD gene encodes a mother-cell- specific penicillin-binding protein required for spore morphogenesis.. J Mol Biol 235:209–220
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Daniel R.A., Williams A.M., Errington J. 1996; A complex four-gene operon containing essential cell division gene pbpB in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 178:2343–2350
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Devereux J., Haeberli P., Smithies O. 1984; A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX.. Nucleic Acids Res 12:387–395
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dillard J.P., Yother J. 1994; Genetic and molecular characterization of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3.. Mol Microbiol 12:959–972
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dowson C.G., Hutchison A., Spratt B.G. 1989a; Nucleotide sequence of the penicillin-binding protein 2B gene of Strep-tococcus pneumoniae strain R6.. Nucleic Acids Res 17:7518
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dowson C.G., Hutchison A., Brannigan J.A., George R.C., Hansman D., Linares J., Tomasz A., Smith J.M., Spratt B.G. 1989b; Horizontal transfer of penicillin-binding protein genes in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 868842–8846
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Duez C., Thamm I., Sapunaric F., Coyette J., Ghuysen J.-M. 1997; The division and cell wall gene cluster of Enterococcus hirae S185.. DNA Seq 7:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Edwards D.H., Errington J. 1997; The Bacillus subtilis DivlVA protein targets to the division septum and controls the site specificity of cell division.. Mol Microbiol 24:905–915
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Flardh K., Garrido T., Vicente M. 1997; Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli. . Mol Microbiol 24:927–936
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fleischmann R.D., Adams M.D., White O. 37 other authors 1995; Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd.. Science 269:496–512
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gasc A.-M., Kauc L., Barraille P., Sicard M., Goodgal S. 1991; Gene localization, size and physical map of the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae. . J Bacteriol 173:7361–7367
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ghuysen J.M. 1991; Serine beta-lactamases and penicillinbinding proteins.. Annu Rev Microbiol 45:37–67
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gish W., States D.J. 1993; Identification of protein coding regions by database similarity search.. Nature Genet 3:266–272
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Grundy F.J., Haldeman M. T., Hornblow G. M., Ward J. M., Chalker A. F., Henkin T. M. 1997; The Staphylococcus aureus ileS gene, encoding isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, is a member of the T-box family.. J Bacteriol 179: 3767–3772
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hakenbeck R. 1998; Mosaic genes and their role in penicillin- resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. . Electrophoresis 19:597–601
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hara H., Yasuda S., Horiuchi K., Park J.T. 1997; A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsl and ftsW. . J Bacteriol 179:5802–5811
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Henriques A.O., de Lencastre H., Piggot P.J. 1992; A Bacillus subtilis morphogene cluster that includes spoVE is homologous to the mra region of Escherichia coli. . Biochimie 74:735–748
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hermans P.W., Abebe F., Kuteyi V.I., Kolk A.H., Thole J.E., Harboe M. 1995; Molecular and immunological characterization of the highly conserved antigen 84 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. . Infect Immun 63:954–960
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ikeda M., Sato T., Wachi M., Jung H.K., Ishino F., Kobayashi Y., Matsuhashi M. 1989; Structural similarity among Escherichia coli FtsW and RodA proteins and Bacillus subtilis SpoVE protein, which function in cell division, cell elongation and spore formation, respectively.. J Bacteriol 171:6375–6378
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ishino F., Jung H.K., Ikeda M., Doi M., Wachi M., Matsuhashi M. 1989; New mutations fts-36, lts-33 and ftsW clustered in the mra region of the Escherichia coli chromosome induce thermo-sensitive cell growth and division.. J Bacteriol 171:5523–5530
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kaneko T., Sato S., Kotani H. 21 other authors 1996; Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. II. Sequence de-termination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions.. DNA Res 3:109–136
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kaneko T., Sato S., Kotani H. 21 other authors 1996a; Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. II. Sequence de-termination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions (supplement).. DNA Res 3:185–209
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kell C.M., Sharma U.K., Dowson C.G., Town C., Balganesh T.S., Spratt B.G. 1993; Deletion analysis of the essentiality of penicillin-binding proteins 1A, 2B and 2X of Streptococcus pneumoniae. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 106:171–175
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Khattar M.M., Begg K.J., Donachie W.D. 1994; Identification of FtsW and characterization of a new ftsW division mutant of Escherichia coli. . J Bacteriol 176:7140–7147
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Khattar M.M., Addinall S.G., Stedul K.H., Boyle D.S., Lutkenhaus J., Donachie W.D. 1997; Two polypeptide products of the Escherichia coli cell division gene ftsW and a possible role for FtsW in FtsZ function.. J Bacteriol 179:784–793
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kunst F., Ogasawara N., Moszer I. 148 other authors 1997; The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. . Nature 390:249–256.?
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Laible G., Hakenbeck R. 1991; Five independent combinations of mutations can result in low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae. . J Bacteriol 173:6986–6990
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Laible G., Hakenbeck R., Sicard M.A., Joris B., Ghuysen J.M. 1989; Nucleotide sequences of the pbpX genes encoding the penicillin-binding proteins 2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 and a cefotaxime-resistant mutant, C506.. Mol Microbiol 3:1337–1348
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Laible G., Spratt B.G., Hakenbeck R. 1991; Interspecies recombinational events during the evolution of altered PBP 2x genes in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. . Mol Microbiol 5:1993–2002
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lleo M.M., Canepari P., Satta G. 1990; Bacterial cell shape regulation: testing of additional predictions unique to the two- competing-sites model for peptidoglycan assembly and isolation of conditional rod-shaped mutants from some wild-type cocci.. J Bacteriol 172:3758–3771
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lutkenhaus J., Addinall S.G. 1997; Bacterial cell division and the Z ring.. Annu Rev Biochem 66:93–116
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Palacios P., Vicente M., Sanchez M. 1996; Dependency of Escherichia coli cell-division size and independency of nucleoid segregation on the mode and level of ftsZ expression.. Mol Microbiol 20:1093–1098
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Philipp W.J., Poulet S., Eiglmeier K., Pascopella L., Balasu-bramanian V., Heym B., Bergh S., Bloom B.R., Jacobs W.R. Jr Cole S.T. 1996; An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and com-parison with Mycobacterium leprae. . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 933132–3137
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Pozzi G., Masala L., lannelli F., Manganelli R., Havarstein L., Piccoli L., Simon D., Morrison D.A. 1996; Competence for genetic transformation in encapsulated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: two allelic variants of the peptide pheromone.. J Bacteriol 178:6087–6090
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pucci M.J., Thanassi J.A., Discotto L.F., Kessler R.E., Dougherty T.J. 1997; Identification and characterization of cell wall cell division gene clusters in pathogenic Gram-positive cocci.. J Bacteriol 179:5632–5635
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ravin A.W. 1959; Reciprocal capsular transformations of pneumococci.. J Bacteriol 77:296–309
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Roe B.A., Linn S.P., Song L., Yuan X., Clifton S., McShan M., Ferretti J. 1998; Streptococcal Genome Sequencing Project (funded by USPHS/NIH grant AI38406).. University of Oklahoma:
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Stingele F., Mollet B. 1996; Disruption of the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 2b (pbp2b) causes altered cell morphology and cease in exopolysaccharide production in Streptococcus tbermopbilus Sfi6.. Mol Microbiol 22:357–366
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sullivan N.F., Donachie W.D. 1984; Transcriptional organization within an Escherichia coli cell division gene cluster: direction of transcription of the cell separation gene envA. . J Bacteriol 160:724–732
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Vicente M., Errington J. 1996; Structure, function and controls in microbial division.. Mol Microbiol 20:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Watanabe H., Mori H., Itoh T., Gojobori T. 1997; Genome plasticity as a paradigm of eubacteria evolution.. J Mol Evol 44: Suppl. 1 S57–S64
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Yanouri A., Daniel R.A., Errington J., Buchanan C.E. 1993; Cloning and sequencing of the cell division gene pbpB, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 2B in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 175:7604–7616
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Yura T., Mori H., Nagai H., Nagata T., Ishihama A., Fujita N., Isono K., Mizobuchi K., Nakata A. 1992; Systematic sequencing of the Escherichia coli genome: analysis of the 0–2·4 min region.. Nucleic Acids Res 20:3305–3308
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-11-3069
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-144-11-3069
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error