1887

Abstract

Summary: The enterotoxin gene () is rarely found in naturally isolated strains. In human food poisoning strains, is found on the chromosome, and is located episomally in animal isolates. Observations that the gene was somewhat unstable and could be gained or lost suggested that the gene was on a mobile element. An IS-like element, IS is almost always upstream of A new insertion element was identified, IS a member of the IS family, which is found both up- and downstream of in the type A strain NCTC 8239. PCR results confirmed that this configuration was conserved in type A human food poisoning strains. The enterotoxin gene was on a 6.3 kb transposon which, in addition to the two flanking copies of included and two 1 kb stretches, one on each side of with no open reading frames. Results indicated that 14 bp was copied from the genome during insertion. Details of the configuration of DNA in this transposon are presented, and the possible connection of this transposon with the movement of the enterotoxin gene is discussed.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Research Council of Norway (Award 105064/110)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-7-2109
1997-07-01
2021-07-31
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/143/7/mic-143-7-2109.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-7-2109&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bannam T. L., Crellin P. K., Rood J. I. 1995; Molecular genetics of the chloramphenicol-resistance transposon Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringens: the TnpX site-specific recombinase excises a circular transposon molecule. Mol Microbiol 16:535–551
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bowness P., Moss P., Tranter H., Bell J. I., McMichael A. J. 1992; Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin is a superantigen reactive with human T-cell receptors v-beta-6.9 and receptor v-beta-22. J Exp Med 176:893–896
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brynestad S., Iwanejko L. A., Stewart G., Granum P. E. 1994; A complex array of Hpr consensus DNA recognition sequences proximal to the enterotoxin gene in Clostridium perfringens type A. Microbiology 140:97–104
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Calladine C. R., Drew H. R. 1992 Different kinds of double helix. . In Understanding DNA: The Molecule and How it Works , pp. 41–65 London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Canard B., Saint-Joanis B., Cole S. T. 1992; Genomic diversity and organization of virulence genes in the pathogenic anaerobe Clostridium perfringens . Mol Microbiol 6:1421–1429
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cornillot E., Saint-Joanis B., Daube G., Katayama S., Granum P. E., Canard B., 8t Cole S. T. 1995; The enterotoxin gene (cpe) of Clostridium perfringens can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. Mol Microbiol 15:639–647
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Craig N. L. 1996 Transposition. . In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology , pp 2339–2362 Edited by Neidhardt F. C. and others Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Czeczulin J. R., Hanna P. C., McClane B. A. 1993; Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene in Escherichia coli . Infect Immun 61:3429–3439
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Daube G., Simon P., Kaeckenbeeck A. 1993; IS1157, an IS-like element of Clostridium perfringens . Nucleic Acids Res 21:352
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Daube G., China B., Simon P., Hvala K., Mainil J. 1994; Typing of Clostridium perfringens by in-vitro amplification of toxin genes. J Appl Bacteriol 11:650–655
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Diallinas G., Gorfinkiel L., Arst H. N., Cecchetto G., Scazzocchio C. 1995; Genetic and molecular characterisation of a gene encoding a wide specificity purine permease of Aspergillus nidulans reveals a novel family of transporters conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. J Biol Chem 270:8610–8622
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fleischmann R. D., Adams M. D., White O. & 37 other authors 1995; Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science 269:469–512
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fraser C. M. 1995; The minimal gene complement of Mycoplasma genitalium . Science 270:397–403
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Galas D. J., Chandler M. 1989 Bacterial insertion sequences. . In Mobile DNA , pp. 109–162 . Edited by Berg D. E., Howe M. M. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Granum P. E., Stewart G. S. A. B. 1993 Molecular biology of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. . In Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria , pp. 235–247 . Edited by Sebald M. New York: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Haack K. R. 1995 The activity of IS200 in Salmonella typhimurium PhD thesis, The University of Utah:
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Haack K. R., Roth J. R. 1995; Recombination between chromosomal IS200 elements supports frequent duplication formation in Salmonella typhimurium . Genetics 141:1245–1252
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Johnston J. L., Sloan J., Fyfe J. A. M., Davies J. K., 8i Rood J. I. 1997; The recA gene from Clostridium perfringens is induced by methyl methanesulphonate and contains an upstream Cheo box. Microbiology 143:885–890
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kulkosky J., Jones K. S., Katz R. A., Mack J., Skalka A. M. 1992; Residues critical for retroviral integrative recombination in a region that is highly conserved among retroviral retro-transposon integrases and bacterial insertion-sequence trans- posases. Mol Cell Biol 12:2331–2338
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lam S., Roth J. R. 1983; IS200 –a Salmonella-specific inser- tion-sequence. Cell 34:951–960
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lam S., Roth J. R. 1986; Structural and functional studies of insertion element IS200 . J Mol Biol 187:157–167
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lederberg E. M. 1987; Plasmid Reference Center Registry of transposon (Tn) and insertion sequence (IS) allocations through December 1986. Gene 51:115–118
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Olasz F., Stalder R., Arber W. 1993; Formation of the tandem repeat (IS30)2 and its role in IS30-mediated transpositional DNA rearrangements. Mol Gen Genet 239:177–187
    [Google Scholar]
  24. OʼReilly C., Black G. W., Laffey R., McConnell D.J. 1990; Molecular analysis of an IS200 insertion in the gpt gene of Salmonella typhimurium lt2. J Bacteriol 172:6599–6601
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rezsöhazy R., Hallet B., Delcour J., 8t Mahillon J. 1993; The IS4 family of insertion sequences: evidence for a conserved transposase motif. Mol Microbiol 9:1283–1295
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rood J. I., Cole S. T. 1991; Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens . Microbiol Rev 55:621–648
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual , 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Stalder R., Konig P., Arber W. 1987; The target specificity of the prokaryotic mobile genetic element IS30 . Experientia 43:636
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Van Damme-Jongsten M., Wernars K., Notermans S. 1989; Cloning and sequencing of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene. Antonie Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol 56:181–190
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-7-2109
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-7-2109
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error