1887

Abstract

In the Pho regulon is controlled by a sensor and regulator protein pair, PhoR and PhoP, that respond to phosphate concentrations. To facilitate studies of the Pho regulon, a strain with an altered PhoR protein was isolated by mutagenesis. The mutation in this strain () leads to the production of a PhoR sensor kinase that, unlike the wild-type, is functionally active in phosphate-replete conditions. The lesion in was shown to be a single base change that results in an Arg to Ser substitution in a region of PhoR that is highly conserved in histidine sensor kinases. While a -negative mutant was unable to induce the synthesis of cell wall teichuronic acid under phosphate-limited conditions, the mutant showed a relative increase in teichuronic acid and a decrease in teichoic acid, even under phosphate-replete conditions. The latter suggests that some or all of the genes required for teichuronic acid synthesis are members of the Pho regulon.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-3-947
1997-03-01
2021-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/143/3/mic-143-3-947.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-3-947&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aiba H., Nagaya M., Mizuno T. 1993; Sensor and regulator from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus species PCC7942 that belong to the bacterial signal transduction protein families: implication in the adaptive response to phosphate limitation.. Mol Microbiol 8:81–91
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Albright L.M., Huala E., Ausubel F.M. 1989; Prokaryotic signal transduction mediated by sensor and regulator protein pairs.. Annu Rev Genet 23:311–316
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ames B.N. 1966; Assay of inorganic phosphate, total phosphate and phosphatases.. Methods Enzymol 8:115–118
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anagnostopoulos C., Spizizen J. 1961; Requirements for transformation in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 81:741–746
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Archibald A.R., Hancock I.C., Harwood C.R. 1993; Cell wall structure, synthesis and turnover.. In Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Biology pp. 381–410 Sonenshein A. L., Hoch J. A., Losick R. Edited by Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology.;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Birkey S.M., Sun G., Piggot P.J., Hulett F.M. 1994; A pho regulon promoter induced under sporulation conditions.. Gene 119:95–100
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blumenkrantz N., Asboe-Hansen G. 1973; New method for the quantitative determination of uronic acids.. Anal Biochem 54:484–489
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bron S., Venema G. 1972; Ultraviolet inactivation and excision repair in Bacillus subtilis. I. Construction and characterization of a transformable eight-fold-auxotrophic strain and two ultraviolet-sensitive derivatives.. Mutat Res 15:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Carter B.H., Winter G. 1985; Improved oligonucleotide site- directed mutagenesis using M13 vectors.. Nucleic Acids Res 13:4431–4443
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chen P.S., Toribara T.Y., Warner H. 1956; Micro determination of phosphorus.. Anal Chem 28:1756–1761
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chesnut R.S., Brookstein C., Hulett F.M. 1991; Separate promoters direct expression of phoAIII, a member of the Bacillus subtilis alkaline phosphatase multigene family, during phosphate starvation and sporulation.. Mol Microbiol 5:2181–2190
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dean D.R., Hoch J.A., Aronson A.I. 1977; Alteration of the Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase results in the overproduction of the enzyme.. J Bacteriol 131:981–987
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eder S., Shi L, Yamane K., Hulett F.M. 1996; A Bacillus subtilis secreted phosphodiesterase/alkaline phosphatase is the product of a Pho regulon gene,phoD. . Microbiology 142:2041–2047
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ellwood D.C., Tempest D.W. 1969; Control of teichoic acid and teichuronic acid biosynthesis in chemostat cultures of Bacillus subtilis var niger. . Biochem J 111:1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eymann C., Mach H., Harwood C.R., Hecker M. 1996; Phosphate starvation inducible proteins in Bacillus subtilis: a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis study.. Microbiology 142:3163–3170
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grant W.D. 1979; Cell wall teichoic acid as a reserve phosphate source in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 137:35–43
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hulett F.M. 1993; Regulation of phosphorus metabolism.. In Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Biology pp. 229–235 Sonenshein A. L., Hoch J. A., Losick R. Edited by Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology.;
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hulett F.M. 1995; Complex phosphate regulation by sequential switches in Bacillus subtilis. . In Two-component Signal Transduction pp. 289–302 Hoch J. A., Silhavy T. J. Edited by Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology.;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hulett F.M., Bookstein C., Jensen K. 1990; Evidence for two structural genes for alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 172:735–740
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hulett F.M., Kim E.E., Bookstein C., Kapp N.V., Edwards C.W., Wyckoff H.W. 1991; Bacillus subtilis alkaline phosphatases III and IV: cloning, sequencing, and comparison of deduced amino acid sequence with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase three-dimensional structure.. J Biol Chem 266:1077–1084
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hulett F. M., Lee J., Shi L., Sun G., Chesnut R., Sharkova E., Duggan M. F., Kapp N. V. 1994a; Sequential action of two- component genetic switches regulates the PHO regulon in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 176:1348–1358
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hulett F. M., Sun G., Liu W. 1994b; The Pho regulon of Bacillus subtilis is regulated by sequential action of two genetic switches.. In Phosphate in Microorganisms, Cellular and Molecular Biology pp. 50–54 Torriani-Gorini A., Yagil E., Silver S. Edited by Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology.;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jensen K.K., Sharkova E., Duggan M.F., Qi Y., Koide A., Hoch J.A., Hulett F.M. 1993; Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator, Spo0A, decreases alkaline phosphatase levels induced by phosphate starvation.. J Bacteriol 175:3749–3756
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kapp N.V., Edwards C.W., Chesnut R.S., Hulett F.M. 1990; The Bacillus subtilis phoAIV gene: effects of the in vitro inactivation on total alkaline phosphatase production.. Gene 96:95–100
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lang W.K., Glassey K., Archibald A.R. 1982; Influence of phosphate supply on teichoic and teichuronic acid content of Bacillus subtilis walls.. J Bacteriol 151:367–375
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee T.-Y., Makino K., Shinagawa H., Amemura M., Nakata A. 1989; Phosphate regulon in members of the family Entero- bacteriaceae: comparison of the phoB-phoR operons of Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. . J Bacteriol 171:6593–6599
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Le Hegarat J.-C., Anagnostopoulos C. 1973; Purification, subunit structure and properties of two repressible phospho- hydrolases of Bacillus subtilis. . Eur J Biochem 39:525–539
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Makino K., Shinagawa H., Nakata A. 1985; Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: regulation and role of the regulatory gene phoR. . J Mol Biol 184:231–240
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Makino K., Shinagawa H., Amemura M., Nakata A. 1986; Nucleotide sequence of the phoR gene, a regulatory gene of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. . J Mol Biol 192:549–556
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Makino K., Shinagawa H., Amemura M., Yamada M., Nakata A. 1989; Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins.. J Mol Biol 210:551–559
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mauck J., Glaser L. 1972; On the mode of in vivo assembly of the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis. . J Biol Chem 247:1180–1187
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Merad T., Archibald A.R., Hancock I.C., Hobot J.A. 1989; Cell wall assembly in Bacillus subtilis: visualization of the old and new material by electron microscopic examination of samples stained selectively for teichoic acid and teichuronic acid.. J Gen Microbiol 135:645–655
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nicholson W.L., Setlow P. 1990; Sporulation, germination and outgrowth.. In Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus pp. 391–50 Harwood C. R., Cutting S. M. Edited by Chichester:: John Wiley.;
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Parkinson J.S., Kofoid E.C. 1992; Communication modules in bacterial signalling proteins.. Annu Rev Genet 26:71–112
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Piggot P.J., Taylor S.Y. 1977; New types of mutation affecting the formation of alkaline phosphatase by Bacillus subtilis. . J Gen Microbiol 102:69–80
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sambrook J., Fritsch E.F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd. Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Scholten M., Tommassen J. 1993; Topology of the PhoR protein of Escherichia coli and functional analysis of internal deletion mutants.. Mol Microbiol 8:269–275
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Seki T., Yoshikawa H., Takahashi H., Saito H. 1987; Cloning and nucleotide sequence of phoP, the regulatory gene for alkaline phosphatase and phosphodiesterase in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 169:2913–2916
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Seki T., Yoshikawa H., Takahashi H., Saito H. 1988; Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis phoR gene.. J Bacteriol 170:2913–2916
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Spizizen J. 1958; Transformation of biochemically deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis by deoxyribonuclease.. Proc Natl Acad Sci 441072–1078
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Stock J.B., Ninfa A.J., Stock A.M. 1989; Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria.. Microbiol Rev 53:450–490
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tommassen J., de Geus P., Lugtenberg B., Hackett J., Reeves P. 1982; Regulation of the pho regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: cloning of the regulatory genes phoB and phoR and identification of their gene products.. J Mol Biol 157:265–274
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Vieira J., Messing J. 1987; Production of single-stranded plasmid DNA.. Methods Enzymol 153:3–15
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Yamane K., Maruo B. 1978; Alkaline phosphatase possessing alkaline phosphodiesterase activity and other phosphodiesterases in Bacillus subtilis. . J Bacteriol 134:108–114
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-3-947
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-3-947
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error