Electrotransformation is a method generally used in biotechnology to introduce recombinant DNA into a wide range of bacteria. However, the mechanism of DNA entry is poorly understood. We report that in a naturally transformable species, electrotransformation efficiently introduces a plasmid replicon. DNA is strongly restricted by the restriction-modification systems and which degrade methylated and non-methylated DNA, respectively, at GATC sequences. This suggests that in electrotransformation double-stranded DNA penetrates into these bacteria without a single-stranded DNA step in contrast to natural transformation. Single-stranded DNA by Itself is able to electrotransform very weakly and linearized double-stranded plasmid DNA yields barely detectable levels of transformants.


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