1887

Abstract

The population structure of was investigated using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A total of 231 isolates were divided into 50 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity of 0·29 for the number of ETs and 0·23 for the number of isolates. Subsets of isolates from two Australian states (71 isolates from Victoria and 68 isolates from Queensland) exhibited as much genetic variation as the entire collection. The calculated index of association ( ) for the number of ETs (0·29±0·17) was not significantly different from zero, and hence provided evidence for the occurrence of significant genetic recombination accounting for the observed variation between strains. In contrast, the for the number of isolates (3·93.0·03) was significantly different from zero, with seven of the 50 ETs (ETs 4, 6, 13, 14, 20, 33 and 35) containing 51% of all the isolates. Even when multiple isolates from the same farm were removed from the analysis, the value for the number of isolates remained significantly greater than zero ( 9·87±0·04), indicating that it was not biased by their inclusion. The results suggest that has an epidemic population structure.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3357
1997-10-01
2021-08-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/143/10/mic-143-10-3357.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3357&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Atyeo R.F., Trott D.J., Hampson D.J. 1996; Use of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of swine dysentery and intestinal spirochaetosis from faecal samples. In Proceedings of the 14Th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress p 291 Bologna: University of Bologna;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Atyeo R.F., Trott D.J., Robertson I.D., Buddie J.R., Hampson D.J. 1996; Epidemiological analysis of serpulina pilosicoli within a high-health status pig herd. In Proceedings of the 14Th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress p 287 Bologna: University of Bologna;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baranton G., Old I.G. 1995; The spirochetes: A different way of life. Bull Inst Pasteur 93:63–95
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baum D.H., Joens L.A. 1979; Serotypes of beta-hemolytic treponema hyodysenteriae. 25:792–796
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Burr E.J. 1968; Division sorting with mixed character types. I. standardisation of character values. Aust Comput J 1:97–99
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Burr E.J. 1970; Division sorting with mixed character types. Ii. fusion strategies. Aust Comput J 2:98–103
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Burrows M.R., Lemcke R.M. 1981; Identification of treponema hyodysenteriae by a rapid slide agglutination test. 108:187–189
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Combs B., Hampson D.J., Mhoma J.R.L., Buddie J.R. 1989; Typing of treponema hyodysenteriae by restriction endonuclease analysis. Vet Microbiol 19:351–359
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Combs B.G., Hampson D.J., Harders S.J. 1992; Typing of australian isolates of treponema hyodysenteriae by serology and by dna restriction endonuclease analysis. Vet Microbiol 31:273–285
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cutler R., Gardner I. 1988 A Blueprint for Pig Health pp 48–49 Canberra: Australian Pig Research Council;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dugourd D., Jacques M., Bigras-Poulin M., Harel J. 1996; Characterization of serpulina hyodysenteriae isolates of serotypes 8 and 9 by random amplification of polymorphic dna analysis. Vet Microbiol 48:305–314
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fernie D.S., Ripley P.H., Walker P.D. 1983; Swine dysentery: Protection against experimental challenge following single dose parenteral immunization with inactivated. Res Vet Sci 35:217–221
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fusté M.G., Pineda M.A., Palomar J., Vinas M., Lorén J.G. 1996; Clonality of multidrug-resistant nontypable strains of haemophilus influenzae. J Clin Microbiol 34:2760–2765
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Go M.F., Kapur V., Graham D.Y., Musser J.M. 1996; Population genetic analysis of helicobacter pylori by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis: Extensive allelic diversity and recombinational population structure. J Bacteriol 178:3934–3938
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hampson D.J., Mhoma J.R.L., Combs B., Buddie J.R. 1989; Proposed revisions to the serological typing system for treponema hyodysenteriae. Epidemiol Infect 102:75–84
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hampson D.J., Maltas C.D., Stephens C.P., McKechnie K., Buller N.B. 1994; Serogroups of australian isolates of serpulina hyodysenteriae. Aust Vet J 71:347
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hampson D.J., Atyeo R.F., Combs B.G. 1997 Swine Dysentery pp. 175–209
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Harel J., Belanger M., Forget C., Jacques M. 1994; Characterisation of serpulina hyodysenteriae isolates of serotypes 8 and 9 from quebec by restriction endonuclease fingerprinting and ribotyping. Can J Vet Res 58:302–305
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hookey J.V., Barrett S.P., Reed C.S., Barber P. 1994; Phylogeny of human intestinal spirochaetes inferred from 16s rdna sequence comparisons. FEMS Microbiol Lett 117:345–350
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Humphrey S.B., Stanton T.B., Jensen N.S. 1995; Mitomycin c induction of bacteriophages from serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina Innocens . FEMS Microbiol Lett 134:97–101
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Humphrey S.B., Stanton T.B., Jensen N.S., Zuerner R.L. 1997; Purification and characterization of vsh-1, a generalized transducing bacteriophage of serpulina hyodysenteriae. J Bacteriol 179:323–329
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ter Huurne A.A.H.M., Gaastra W. 1995; Swine dysentery: More unknown than known. Vet Microbiol 46:347–360
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ter Huurne A.H.M., Van Houten M., Koopman M.B.H., Van Der Zeijst B.A.M., Gaastra W. 1992; Characterization of dutch porcine serpulina (Treponema) isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis and dna hybridization. J Gen Microbiol 138:1929–1934
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ter Huurne A.A.H.M., Van Houten M., Muir S., Kusters J.G., Van Der Zeijst B.A.M., Gaastra W. 1992; Inactivation of a serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae haemolysin gene by homologous recombination: Importance of this haemolysin in the pathogenesis of s. hyodysenteriae in mice. FEMS Microbiol Lett 92:109–114
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hyatt D.R., Ter Huurne A.A.H.M., Van Der Ziejst B.A.M., Joens L.A. 1994; Reduced virulence of serpulina hyodysenteriae haemolysin-negative mutants in pigs and their potential to protect pigs against challenge with a virulent strain. Infect Immun 62:2244–2248
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Jensen N.S., Stanton T.B. 1993; Comparison of serpulina hyodysenteriae b78, the type strain of the species, with other s. Hyodysenteriae strains using enteropathogenicity studies and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Vet Microbiol 36:221–231
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jensen N.S., Stanton T.B., Swayne D.E. 1996; Identification of the swine pathogen. Vet Microbiol 52:259–269
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Joens L.A., Glock R.D. 1979; Experimental infection in mice with treponema hyodysenteriae. Infect Immun 25:757–760
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Joens L.A., Songer J.G., Harris D.L., Glock R.D. 1978; Experimental infection with treponema hyodysenteriae in guinea pigs. Infect Immun 22:132–135
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Joens L.A., Whipp S.C., Glock R.D., Nuessen M.E. 1983; Serotype-specific protection against treponema hyodysenteriae infection in ligated colonic loops of pigs recovered from swine dysentery. Infect Immun 39:460–462
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kapur V., Sischo W.M., Greer R.S., Whittam T.S., Musser J.M. 1995; Molecular population genetic analysis of staphylococcus aureus recovered from cows. J Clin Microbiol 33:376–380
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kunkle R.A., Harris D.L., Kinyon J.M. 1986; Autoclaved liquid medium for propagation of treponema hyodysenteriae. J Clin Microbiol 24:669–671
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lau T.T.A., Hampson D.J. 1992; The serological grouping system for serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae. Epidemiol Infect 109:255–263
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lee J.I., Hampson D.J. 1994; Genetic characterisation of intestinal spirochaetes and their association with disease. J Med Microbiol 40:365–371
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lee J.I., Hampson D.J., Combs B.G., Lymbery A.J. 1993; Genetic relationships between isolates of serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae, and comparison of methods for their subspecific differentiation. Vet Microbiol 34:35–46
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lee J.I., Hampson D.J., Lymbery A.J., Harders S.J. 1993; The porcine intestinal spirochaetes: Identification of new genetic groups. Vet Microbiol 34:273–285
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lee J.I., McLaren A.J., Lymbery A.J., Hampson D.J. 1993; Human intestinal spirochetes are distinct from serpulina hyodysenteriae. J Clin Microbiol 31:16–21
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lymbery A.J., Hampson D.J., Hopkins R.M., Combs B., Mhoma J.R.L. 1990; Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for identification and typing of treponema hyodysenteriae and related spirochaetes. Vet Microbiol 22:89–99
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lysons R.J., Burrows M.R., Jones P.W., Collins P. 1987; Swine dysentery, a new and effective vaccine. Pig Vet Soc Proc 18:87–91
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Maiden M.C.J., Feavers I.M. 1995; Population genetics and global epidemiology of the human pathogen neisseria meningitidis. Population Genetics of Bacteria269–293
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Maynard Smith J., Smith N.H., O'Rourke M., Spratt B.G. 1993; How clonal are bacteria?. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:4384–4388
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Milner J.A., Sellwood R. 1994; Chemotactic response to mucin by serpulina hyodysenteriae and other porcine spirochetes: Potential role in intestinal colonization. Infect Immun 62:4095–4099
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Nei M. 1977; F-statistics and analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Ann Hum Genet 41:225–233
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pettersson B., Fellstrdm C., Ersson A., Uhlén M., Gunnarsson A., Johansson K. 1996; The phylogeny of intestinal porcine spirochetes (Serpulina species) based on sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene. J Bacteriol 178:4189–4199
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rosey E.L., Kennedy M.J., Petrella D.K., Ulrich R.G., Yancey R.J. Jr 1995; Inactivation of serpulina hyodysenteriae flaal and flabl periplasmic flagellar genes by electroporation-mediated allelic exchange. J Bacteriol 177:5959–5970
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Selander R.K., Caugant D.A., Ochman H., Musser J.M., Gilmour M.N., Whittam T.S. 1986; Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:873–884
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Stanton T.B. 1992; Proposal to change the genus designation serpula to serpulina gen. Nov. containing the species serpulina hyodysenteriae comb. nov. and serpulina innocens comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:189–192
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Stanton T.B. 1997; Physiology of ruminal and intestinal spirochaetes. Intestinal Spirochaetes in Domestic Animals and Humans7–45
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Stanton T.B., Lee J.I., McLaren A.J., Trott D.J., Hampson D.J., Paster B.J. 1996; Differentiation of intestinal spirochaetes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and 16s rrna sequence comparisons. FEMS Microbiol Lett 136:181–186
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Stanton T.B., Jensen N.S., Bosworth B.T., Kunkle R.A. 1997; Evaluation of the virulence of rhea s. Hyodysenteriae strains for swine. Proceedings of the 1St National Animal Disease Centre Virtual Conference 100006:
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sueyoshi M., Adachi Y. 1990; Diarrhoea induced by treponema hyodysenteriae: A young chick caecal model for swine dysentery. Infect Immun 58:3348–3362
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Taylor D.J., Trott D.J. 1997; Porcine intestinal spirochaetosis and spirochaetal colitis. Intestinal Spirochaetes in Domestic Animals and Humans211–241
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Trott D.J., Atyeo R.F., Lee J.I., Swayne D.A., Stouten Burg J.W., Hampson D.J. 1996; Genetic relatedness amongst intestinal spirochaetes isolated from rats and birds. Lett Appl Microbiol 23:431–436
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Woese C.R. 1987; Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev 51:221–271
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Zuerner R.L., Stanton T.B. 1994; Physical and genetic map of the serpulina hyodysenteriae b78 chromosome. J Bacteriol 176:1087–1092
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3357
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3357
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error