1887

Abstract

An apparently novel 1,3-β-glucan synthase from the oomycete has been characterized. The enzyme exhibits properties that differ markedly from those of the enzyme previously described [Fèvre, M. & Dumas, C. (1977). 103, 297-306] as it is active at alkaline pH, stimulated by the divalent cations Ca, Mg and Mn, and appears to be located mainly in the apical part of the hypha. Taking into consideration the differences in pH optimum and effect of divalent ions, each enzyme activity could be assayed in the presence of the other. The insoluble polymeric product of the enzyme with alkaline pH optimum was characterized as a linear 1,3-β-glucan. Comparisons of the general properties of 1,3-β-glucan synthases suggest that enzymes from the oomycetes are more closely related to enzymes from higher plants than to those of true fungi, reflecting the fact that the oomycetes are highly divergent from chitinous fungi.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3175
1997-10-01
2021-10-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/143/10/mic-143-10-3175.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3175&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bartnicki-Garcia S. 1970; Cell wall composition and other biochemical markers in fungal phylogeny. In Phytochemical Phytogeny pp. 81–103 Edited by Harbone J. A. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bartnicki-Garcia S. 1990; Role of vesicles in apical growth and a new mathematical model of hyphal morphogenesis. In Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells pp. 211–232 Edited by Heath J. B. Toronto: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bartnicki-Garcia S., Bracker C.E., Reyes E., Ruiz-Herrera J. 1984; Isolation of chitosomes from taxonomically diverse fungi and synthesis of chitin microfibrils in vitro. Exp Mycol 2:173–192
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradford M. 1976; A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 12:248–254
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bulawa C.E. 1993; Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol 47:505–534
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bulone V., Girard V., Ffevre M. 1990; Separation and partial purification of 1,3-β glucan and 1,4-β glucan synthases from saprolegnia. Plant Physiol 94:1748–1755
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Buione V., Chanzy H., Gay L., Girard V., Fèvre M. 1992; Characterization of chitin and chitin synthases from the cellulosic cell wall fungus saprolegnia monoica. Exp Mycol 16:8–21
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cabib E. 1987; The synthesis and degradation of chitin. Adv Enzymol 59:59–101
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cavalier-Smith T. 1987; The origin of fungi and pseudo-fungi. In Evolutionary Biology of the Fungi, British Mycological Society Symposium vol. 11 pp. 339–353 Edited by Rayner A. D. M., Braisier C. M., Moore D. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Choi W.J., Cabib E. 1994; The use of divalent cations and ph for the determination of specific yeast chitin synthetases. Anal Biochem 219:368–372
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cid V.J., Duran A., Del Rey F., Snyder M.P., Nombela C., Sanchez M. 1995; Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Microbiol Rev 59:345–386
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Delmer D.P. 1991; The biochemistry of cellulose biosynthesis. In The Cytoskeletal Basis of Plant Growth and Form pp 101–107 Edited by Lloyd C. San Diego: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Din A.B., Specht C.A., Robbins P.W., Yarden O. 1996; Chs 4, a Class IV Chitin Synthase Gene from Neurospora Crassa. Mol Gen Genet 250:214–222
    [Google Scholar]
  14. El-Sherbeini M., Clemas J.A. 1995; Cloning and characterization of gsn1: A saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in synthesis of 1,3-β glucan in Vitro . J Bacteriol 177:3227–3234
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Févre M. 1983; Nucleotide effects on glucan synthesis activities of particulate enzyme from Saprolegnia. Planta 159:130–135
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Févre M., Dumas C. 1977; β-Glucan Synthetases from Saprolegnia Monoica. J Gen Microbiol 103:297–306
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Févre M., Rougier M. 1981; β-l,3 and β-l,4-glucan synthesis by membrane fractions from the fungus saprolegnia. Planta 151:232–241
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Févre M., Gay L., Chanzy H. 1996; Analysis of chitin biosynthesis. In Modern Methods of Plant Analysis vol. 17 pp. 81–94 Edited by Linskens F., Jackson J.F. Berlin: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gaugy D., Févre M. 1982; Protoplast production from Saprolegnia Monoica. Microbios 34:89–98
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gay L., Chanzy H., Bulone V., Girard V. 1993 Synthesis 139:2117–2122
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gibeaut D.M., Carpita N.C. 1994; Biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. FASEB J 8:904–915
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Girard V., Fèvre M. 1984; Distribution of (1→3)-βand (1 → 4)-β-glucan synthases along the hyphae of Saprolegnia Monoica. J Gen Microbiol 130:1557–1562
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Inoue S.B., Takewaki N., Takasuka T., Mio T., Adachi M., Fujii Y., Miyamoto C., Arisawa M., Furuichi Y., Watanabe Y. 1995; Characterization and gene cloning of l,3-β-glucan synthase from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae . Eur J Biochem 231:845–854
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Isaac S., Ryder W.S., Peberdy J.F. 1978; Distribution and activation of chitin synthase in protoplast fractions released during the lytic digestion of aspergillus nidulans hyphae. J Gen Microbiol 105:45–50
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jackson S.L., Heath I.B. 1993; Roles of calcium ions in hyphal tip growth. Microbiol Rev 57:367–382
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kang M.S., Cabib E. 1986; Regulation of fungal cell wall growth: A guanine nucleotide-binding proteinaceous component required for activity of (l-3)-β-d-glucan synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5808–5812
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kauss H. 1987; Some aspects of calcium dependent regulation in plant metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 38:47–72
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kelly R., Register E., Hsu M.J., Kurtz M., Nielsen J. 1996 Isolation of a Gene Involved in L,3 178:4381–4391
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Levina N., Lew R., Yde H. 1995; The Roles of Ca2+ and Plasma Membrane Ion Channels in Hyphal Tip Growth of Neurospora Crassa. J Cell Sci 108:3405–3417
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Machlis L. 1953; Growth and nutrition of watermolds in the subgenus euallomyces. Ii. optimal composition of the minimal medium. Am J Bot 40:449–460
    [Google Scholar]
  31. MazurBaginsky P. 1996 Activity of L,3Glucan Synthase Requires the Gtp-Binding Protein Rhol 271:14604–14609
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mazur P., Morin N., Baginsky W., El-Sherbeini M., Clemas J.A., Nielsen J.B., Foor F. 1995; Differential expression and function of two homologous subunits of yeast l,3-β-glucan synthase. Mol Cell Biol 15:5671–5681
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mellado E., Aufauvre-Brown A., Specht C.A., Robbins P.W., Holden D.W. 1995; A multigene family related to chitin synthase genes of yeast in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus Fumigatus. Mol Gen Genet 246:353–359
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mort-Bontemps M., Gay L., Fèvre M. 1997; CHS2, a Chitin Synthase Gene from the Oomycete Saprolegnia Monoica. Microbiology 143:2009–2020
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ng K., Johnson E., Stone B.A. 1996; Specificity of binding of β-glucoside activators of ryegrass (L,3) β-glucan synthase and the synthesis of some potential photoaffinity activators. Plant Physiol 111:1227–1231
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ohana P., Delmer D.P., Steffens J.C., Matthews D.E., Mayer R., Benziman M. 1991; β-furfurylβ-glucoside: An endogenous activator of higher plant udp-glucose (l-3) β-glucan synthase. J Biol Chem 226:13742–13745
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Perret J., Bruneteau M., Michel G., Marais M.F., Joseleau J.P. 1992; Effect of growth conditions on the structure of β-glucans from phytophthora parasitica dastur, a phytopathogenic fungus. Carbohydr Polym 17:231–236
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ram A.F.J., Brekelmans S.S.C., Oehlen L.J.W.M., Klis F.M. 1995; Identification of two cell cycle regulated genes affecting the β-l,3-glucan content of cell walls in. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 358:165–170
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ruiz-Herrera J. 1991; Biosynthesis of β-glucans in fungi. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 60:73–81
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Szaniszlo P.J., Kang M.S., Cabib E. 1985 Stimulation Of 161:1188–1194
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wessels J.G.H. 1993; Wall growth, protein excretion and morphogenesis in fungi. New Phytol 123:397–413
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3175
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-10-3175
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error