To optimize bacteriocin production processes, the relationships between growth, bacteriocin production and factors affecting the occurrence and intensity of the activity peak during the growth cycle must be understood. Amylovorin L471, a bacteriocin produced by DCE 471, displays primary metabolite kinetics with a peak activity during the midexponential phase. Because of this growth association, only conditions favouring a drastic increase in biomass improve the volumetric bacteriocin titre. Specific bacteriocin production is enhanced under unfavourable growth conditions such as low temperatures (30°), and the presence of potentially toxic compounds such as ethanol (1.0%, v/v) and oxygen (80%, v/v, air saturation). Whereas volumetric biomass formation and growth-associated bacteriocin production are dependent on the amount of glucose and nitrogen supplied, slow growth rates stimulate specific bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin inactivation can be ascribed to protein aggregation and adsorption phenomena. It may be overcome by switching the pH to 2.0 during the fermentation run after having reached the peak activity. Thus, manipulation of the cell environment can stimulate bacteriocin production. The latter can be induced by unfavourable growth conditions, so-called stress factors. The specific growth rate seems to play an important role in the control of bacteriocin production.


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