1887

Abstract

The fatty acid composition and temperature/growth characteristics of a psychrophilic bacterium, strain ACAM 456, isolated from Antarctic sea-ice is reported. The bacterium produced acyl components that may be grouped in three different carbon chain types: even-chain, odd-chain and -branched odd-chain. The proportions of these chain types varied according to growth temperature, and were manipulated by growth on L-serine, t-leucine or propionic acid as sole carbon sources. fatty acid synthesis was investigated using sodium [1-C]acetate, L-[U-C]leucine and L-[U-C]serine as radioactive precursors. Compared with a control culture, resuspension of midexponential phase cells in artificial seawater led to a change in the selection and/or intracellular availability of acyl chain primer molecules. The proportion of radiolabel incorporated into even-chain length components from cells declined, whereas the percentage of radiolabel present in odd-chain length components increased. An increase in incubation temperature augmented this effect, and also elicited a rise in the proportion of label present in branchedchain products. ACAM 456 manipulated the utilization of acyl chain primer molecules as an adaptive response to changes in environmental conditions. In particular, the regulation of odd-chain length fatty acids is described as a novel adaptational response.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-142-4-747
1996-04-01
2021-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/142/4/mic-142-4-747.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-142-4-747&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bligh E.G., Dyer W.J. A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biocbem Physiol 1959; 37:911–917
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Butterworth P.H.W., Bloch K. Comparative aspects of fatty acid synthesis in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem 1970; 12:496–501
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Calvo J.M., Matthews R.G. The leucine-responsive regulatory protein, a global regulator of metabolism in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev 1994; 58:466–490
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Fulco A.J. Fatty acids of bacteria. Prog Eipid Res 1983; 22:133–160
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hama H., Shimamoto T., Tsuda M., Tsuchiya T. Characterisation of a novel L-serine transport system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 1988; 170:2236–2239
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Harder W., Veldkamp H. Competition of marine psychrophilic bacteria at low temperatures. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 1971; 37:51–63
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ingram L.O., Chevalier L.S., Gabbay E.J., Ley K.D., Winters K. Propionate-induced synthesis of odd-chain-length fatty acids by E coli. J Bacteriol 1977; 131:1023–1025
    [Google Scholar]
  8. James S.R., Dobson S.J., Franzmann P.D., McMeekin T.A. Halomonas meridiana, a new species of extremely halotolerant bacteria isolated from Antarctic saline lakes. Syst Appl Microbiol 1990; 13:270–278
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kaneda T. Biosynthesis of branched chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem 1963; 238:1229–1235
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kaneda T. Iso and anteiso-fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function and taxonomic significance. Microbiol Rev 1991; 55:288–302
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Magnuson K., Jackowski S., Rock C.O., Cronan J.E. Jr Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev 1993; 57:522–542
    [Google Scholar]
  12. McElhaney R.N. Effects of membrane lipids on transport and enzymic activities. Curr Top Membr Transp 1982; 17:317–380
    [Google Scholar]
  13. McMeekin T.A., Chandler R.E., Doe P.E., Garland C.D., Olley J., Putro S., Ratkowsky D.A. Model for combined effect of temperature and salt concentration/water activity on the growth rate of Staphylococcus xylosus. J Appl Bacteriol 1987; 62:543–550
    [Google Scholar]
  14. McMeekin T.A., Olley J.N., Ross T., Ratkowsky D.A. Predictive Microbiology: Theory and Application 1993 Taunton: Research Studies Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nichols D.S., Nichols P.D., McMeekin T.A. A new n-C319 hydrocarbon from Antarctic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995; 125:281–286
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ratkowsky D.A., Olley J., McMeekin T.A., Ball A. Relationship between temperature and growth rate of bacterial cultures. J Bacteriol 1982; 149:1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ratkowsky D.A., Lowry R.K., McMeekin T.A., Stokes A.N., Chandler R.E. Model for bacterial culture growth rate throughout the entire biokinetic temperature range. J Bacteriol 1983; 154:1222–1226
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rilfors L., Lindblom G., Wiesl Snder A., Christiansson A. Lipid bilayer stability in biological membranes. In Biomembranes 1984 Edited by Kates M., Manson L.A. New York: Plenum; pp 203–246
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Russell N.J. Mechanisms of thermal adaptation in bacteria: blueprints for survival. Trends Biochem Sci 1984a; 9:108–112
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Russell N.J. The regulation of membrane fluidity in bacteria by acyl chain length changes. In Membrane Fluidity 1984b Edited by Kates M., Manson L.A. New York: Plenum; pp 329–347
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sinensky M. Homeoviscous adaptation - a homeostatic process that regulates the viscosity of membrane lipids in E coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1974; 71:522–525
    [Google Scholar]
  22. White D.C., Davis W.M., Nickels J.S., King J.D., Bobbie R.J. Determination of the sedimentary microbial biomass by extractible lipid phosphate. Oecologia 1979; 40:51–62
    [Google Scholar]
  23. White R.H. The biosynthesis of n-[2H7]fatty acids by Arthrobacter globiformis from [U-2H15]octanoic acid. Lipids 1984; 19:570–572
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wiesldnder A., Nordstrom S., Dhalqvist A., Rilfors L., Lindblom G. Membrane lipid composition and cell size of Acholeplasma laidlawii strain A are strongly influenced by lipid acyl chain length. Eur J Biochem 1995; 227:734–744
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Zobell C.E. Marine Microbiology 1946 Waltham: Chronica Botanica;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-142-4-747
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-142-4-747
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error