1887

Abstract

The phytopathogenicity of is chiefly supported by the production of pectate lyase isoenzymes, encoded by the genes. One of these enzymes, PelA, encoded by the gene, seems to represent only a small part of the total pectate lyase activity, but is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. To study the regulation of gene expression, a :: gene fusion was constructed. Expression of this fusion was analysed under various growth conditions and in various genetic backgrounds. Whatever the culture conditions, the gene was weakly expressed. Moreover, expression seems not to be regulated by the gene product, but essentially by the gene product. In many plant-associated bacteria, genes involved in pathogenicity are induced by certain plant compounds. In this work, we demonstrate that genes are induced in the presence of plant extracts, but only in synergy with known pectate lyase inducers (KDG: 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate; DKII: 2,5-diketo-3-deoxygluconate). However, different genes did not exhibit the same sensitivity to plant signal molecules. Partial purification of inducing plant compounds suggested that plant extracts contain at least one molecule involved in pectate lyase induction. This compound is thermoresistant, and has a low molecular mass and a very hydrophilic behaviour.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-139-1-1
1993-01-01
2021-07-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/139/1/mic-139-1-1.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-139-1-1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ausubel F. M, Brent R., Kingston R. E, Moore D. D, Seidman J. G, Smith J. A., Struhl K. 1987 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology New York:: Wiley-Interscience.;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bachmann B. S. 1990; Linkage map of Escherichia coli K12. Edition 8. Microbiological Reviews 54:130–197
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barras F., Thurn K. K., Chatterjee A. K. 1987; Resolution of four pectate lyase structural genes of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC 16 and characterization of the enzymes produced in. Escherichia coli. Molecular and General Genetics 209:319–325
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bertheau Y., Madgidi-Hervan E., Kotoujansky A., Nguyen-The C., Andro T., Coleno A. 1984; Detection of depolymerase isoenzymes after electrophoresis or electrofocusing, or in titration curves. Analytical Biochemistry 139:383–389
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boccara M., Diolez A., Rouve M., Kotoujansky A. 1988; The role ofindividual pectate lyases of Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937 in pathogenicity on Saintpaulia plants. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 33:95–104
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bolivar F. 1978; Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. III. Derivatives of plasmid pBR322 carrying unique Eco RA- generated recombinant DNA molecules. Gene 4:121–136
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bolton G. W, Nester E. W., Gordon M. P. 1986; Plant phenolic compounds induce expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaceins loci needed for virulence. Science 232:983–985
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cangelosi G. A, Ankenbauer R. G., Nester E. W. 1990; Sugars induce the Agrobacterium virulence genes through a periplasmic binding protein and a transmembrane signal protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87:6708–6712
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chatterjee A. K, Thurn K. K., Tyrel D. J. 1985; Isolation and characterisation of Tn5 insertion mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi that are deficient in polygalacturonate catabolic enzymes oligo- galacturonate lyase and 3-deoxy-D-glycero-2,5-hexodiulosonate dehydrogenase. Journal of Bacteriology 162:708–714
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Collmer A., Bateman D. F. 1981; Impaired induction and self- catabolite repression of extracellular pectate lyase in Erwinia chrysanthemi mutants deficient in oligogalacturonide lyase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 78:3920–3924
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Collmer A., Keen N. T. 1986; The role of pectic enzymes in plant pathogenesis. Annual Review of Phytopathology 24:383–409
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Condemine G., Robert-Baudouy J. 1987; Tn5 insertion in kdgR, a regulatory gene of the polygalacturonate pathway in Erwinia chrysanthemi. FEMS Microbiology Letters 42:39–46
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Condemine G., Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Robert-Baudouy J. 1986; Isolation of Erwinia chrysanthemi kduD mutants altered in pectin degradation. Journal of Bacteriology 165:937–941
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Downie J. A., Johnston A. W. B. 1988; Nodulation of legumes BY Rhizobium. Plant Cell and Environment 11:403–412
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Favey S., Bourson C., Bertheau Y., Kotoujansky A., Boccara M. 1992; Purification of the acidic pectate lyase of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 and sequence analysis of the corresponding gene. Journal of General Microbilogy 138:499–508
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Garibaldi A., Bateman D. F. 1971; Pectine enzymes produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and their effects on plant tissue. Physiological Plant Pathology 1:25–40
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Robert-Baudouy J. 1985; Lactose catabolism in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of Bacteriology 162:248–255
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Robert-Baudouy J. 1987; Hexuronate catabolism in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of Bacteriology 169:1223–1231
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Robert-Baudouy J. 1989; Isolation of Erwinia chrysanthemi mutants altered in pectinolytic enzyme production. Molecular Microbiology 3:1587–1597
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Reverchon S., Condemine G., Robert-Baudouy J. 1986; Regulatory mutation affecting the synthesis of pectate lyases in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of General Microbiology 132:2099–2106
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Reverchon S., Robert-Baudouy J. 1989; Expanded linkage map of Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937. Molecular Microbiology 3:573–581
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kotoujansky A., Diolez A., Boccara M., Bertheau Y., Andro T., Coleno A. 1985; Molecular cloning of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectinase and cellulase structural genes. EM BO Journal 4:781–785
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mantis N. J., Winans S. C. 1992; The Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir gene transcriptional activator virG is transcriptionally induced by acid pH and other stress stimuli. Journal of Bacteriology 174:1189–1196
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miller J. H. 1972 Experiment in Molecular Genetics Cold Spring Harbor,; NY: Cold Spring Harbor Faboratory.:
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Moran F., Nasuno S., Starr M. P. 1968; Extracellular and intracellular polygalacturonic acid transeliminase of Erwinia caroto- vora. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 123:298–306
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Novel G., Didier-Fichet M. F., Stoeber F. 1974; Inductibility of β-glucuronidase in wild-type and hexuronate-negative mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. Journal of Bacteriology 120:89–95
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Perombelon M. C.M. 1990; Ecology and pathogenicity of soft rot Erwinias: an overview. In Plant Pathogenic Bacteria pp. 745–751, Edited by Z. Klement. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Redmond J. W, Batley M., Djordjevic M. A, Innes R. W., Kuempel P. L., Rolfe B. G. 1986; Flavones induce expression of nodulation genes in Rhizobium. Nature, London 323:632–635
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Resibois A., Colet M., Faelen M., Schoonejans E., Toussaint A. 1984; PhiEC2, a new generalised transducing phage of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Virology 137:102–112
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Reverchon S., Robert-Baudouy J. 1987A; Molecular cloning of Erwinia chrysanthemi oligogalacturonate lyase gene involved in pectin degradation. Gene 55:125–133
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Reverchon S., Robert-Baudouy J. 1987b; Regulation of expression of pectate lyase pelA, pelD and pelE in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of Bacteriology 169:2417–2423
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Reverchon S., Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Robert-Baudouy J. 1985; Cloning of genes encoding pectolytic enzyme from a genomic library of the phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi. Gene 35:121–130
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reverchon S., Van Gijsegem F., Rouve M., Kotoujansky A., Robert-Baudouy J. 1986; Organisation of a pectate lyase gene family in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Gene 49:215–224
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Reverchon S., Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N., Condemine. G., Bourson C., Arpin C., Robert-Baudouy J. 1990; Pectinolysis regulation in Erwinia chrysanthemi. In Plant Pathogenic Bacteria pp. 739–744, Edited by Z. Klement.. Budapest:: Akademiai Kiado.;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reverchon S., Nasser W., Robert-Baudouy J. 1991; Characterization of kdgR, a gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi that regulates pectin degradation. Molecular Microbiology 5:2203–2216
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Roeder D. L., Collmer A. 1985; Marker-exchange mutagenesis of pectate lyase isozyme gene in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of Bacteriology 164:51–56
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor,; NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.:
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Shimoda N., Toyoda-Yamamoto A., Nagamine J., Usami. S.. Katayama M., Sakagami Y., Machida Y. 1990; Control of expression of Agrobacterium vir genes by synergistic action of phenolic signal molecules and monosaccharides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87:6684–6688
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Stachel S. E, Messen E., Van Montagu M., Zambryski P. 1985; Identification of the signal molecules produced by wounded plant cells which activate the T-DNA transfer process in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nature, London 318:624–629
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stachel S. E., Nester, E. W., Zambryski P. C. 1986; A plant cell factor induces Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 83:379–383
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tamaki S. J, Gold S., Robeson M., Manulis S., Keen N. T. 1988; Structure and organisation of the pel genes from Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. Journal of Bacteriology 170:3468–3478
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Winans S. C. 1990; Transcriptional induction of an Agrobacterium regulatorygene at tandem promoters by plant-released phenolic compounds, phosphate starvation, and acidic growth media. Journal of Bacteriology 172:2433–2438
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Winans S. C. 1991; An Agrobacterium two-component regulatory system for thedetection of chemicals released from plant wounds. Molecular Microbiology 5:2345–2350
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-139-1-1
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-139-1-1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error