1887

Abstract

Summary: The gas permeability coefficient of the cyanobacterial gas vesicle wall has been determined by comparing the concentration gradient of oxygen gas in a film of gas vesicles with the gradient in an underlying film of agar supported over an oxygen atmosphere. The gradients were determined with an oxygen microelectrode. The value of the gradient in aqueous agar was 0·81 of that in a suspension in which gas vesicles occupied 0·35 of the total volume. From this it was calculated that the notional diffusivity of oxygen through the gas vesicle was equivalent to 0·53 of the diffusivity in water. The permeability coefficient of the gas vesicle membrane is calculated to be = 32 mm , the rate coefficient for filling the gas vesicle by diffusion is a = 2·4 x 10 and the folding time for equilibration of gas into a gas vesicle is = 0·4 μs. The permeability coefficient is about 100-fold higher than the minimum value set by previous pressure rise experiments, and confirms that gas vesicles could not store gas. The measurements also show, however, that randomly oriented gas vesicles would not provide a diffusion channel with a diffusivity higher than that in water, although a layer of gas vesicles oriented with their long axes parallel to the diffusion gradient would provide a diffusivity 3·5-fold higher. The determination of the diffusivity was made with a theory, based on diffusion equations, which can be used in the determination of the diffusivity through other cell organelles.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-4-837
1992-04-01
2021-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/138/4/mic-138-4-837.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-4-837&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Blaurock A. E., Walsby A. E. 1976; Crystalline structure of the gas vesicle wall from Anabaena flos-aquae . Journal of Molecular Biology 105:183–199
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boas M. L. 1983; Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, . 2nd edn New York: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Breck D. W. 1974; Zeolite Molecular Sieves. . New York: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carpenter E. J., Price C. C. 1976; Marine Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium): explanation for aerobic nitrogen fixation without heterocysts. Science 191:1278–1280
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Crank J. 1975; The Mathematics of Diffusion . 2nd edn Oxford: Oxford University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gantt E., Okhi K., Fujita Y. 1984; Trichodesmium thiebautii; structure of a nitrogen-fixing marine blue-green alga (Cyanophyta). Protoplasma 119:188–196
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Glazer A. N. 1976; Chemical modification of proteins. In The Proteins, vol. 2 pp. 1–103 Edited by Newrath H., Hill R. L. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hashin Z., Shtrikman S. 1962; A variational approach to the theory of the effective magnetic permeability of multiphasic materials. Journal of Applied Physics 33:3125–3131
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hayes P. K. 1988; Gas vesicles: chemical and physical properties. Methods in Enzymology 167:213–222
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hayes P. K., Lazarus C. M., Bees A., Walker J. E., Walsby A. E. 1988; The protein encoded by gvpC is a minor component of gas vesicles isolated from the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Microcystis sp. Molecular Microbiology 2:545–552
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jeans J. 1940; An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Maxwell J. C. 1873; A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. . Oxford: Oxford University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Revsbech N. P. 1989; Diffusion characteristics of microbial communities determined by use of oxygen microsensors. Journal of Microbial Methods 9:111–122
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Revsbech N. P., Ward D. M. 1983; Oxygen microelectrode that is insensitive to medium chemical composition: use in an acid microbial mat dominated by Cyanidium caldarium . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45:755–759
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Riley J. P., Skirrow G. 1975; Chemical Oceanography . vol. 1, p. 561 London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Scouloudi H. 1969; X-ray crystallographic studies of seal myoglobin : the model at 6 Å and 5 Å resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 40:353–377
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Taylor B. F., Lee C. C., Bunt J. S. 1973; Nitrogen-fixation associated with the marine blue-green alga, Trichodesmium, as measured by the acetylene-reduction technique. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 88:205–212
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Turner J. C. R. 1976; Two-phase conductivity. The electrical conductance of liquid-fluidised beds of spheres. Chemical Engineering Science 31:487–492
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Walsby A. E. 1969; The permeability of blue-green algal gas-vacuole membranes to gas. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B173235–255
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Walsby A. E. 1971; The pressure relationships of gas vacuoles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B178301–326
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Walsby A. E. 1972; Structure and function of gas vacuoles. Bacteriological Reviews 36:1–32
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Walsby A. E. 1974; The isolation of gas vesicles from blue-green algae. Methods in Enzymology 31:678–686
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Walsby A. E. 1982a; The elastic compressibility of gas vesicles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B216:355–368
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Walsby A. E. 1982b; Permeability of gas vesicles to perfluorocyclobutane. Journal of General Microbiology 128:1679–1684
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Walsby A. E. 1984; Lower limit of the gas permeability coefficient of gas vesicles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B223177–196
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Walsby A. E. 1985; The permeability of heterocysts to the gases nitrogen and oxygen. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B226345–366
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Walsby A. E. 1991; The mechanical properties of the Microcystis gas vesicle. Journal of General Microbiology 137:2401–2408
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Walsby A. E., Bleything A. 1988; The dimensions of cyanobacterial gas vesicles in relation to their efficiency in providing buoyancy and withstanding pressure. Journal of General Microbiology 134:2635–2645
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Walsby A. E., Hayes P. K. 1989; Gas vesicle proteins. Biochemical Journal 264:313–322
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-4-837
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-4-837
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error