1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: The taxonomic status of the parasitic protozoal species depends on the morphological similarity of all isolated from humans and the presumption that are host-specific. On the basis of electrophoretic data derived from examination of 26 enzyme loci in Australian isolates, it has been proposed that is a species complex comprising three or four genetically distinct (but morphologically cryptic) species. These received the tentative designations of genetic groups I-IV (R. H. Andrews, M. Adams, P. F. L. Boreham, G. Mayrhofer & B. P. Meloni. 19, 183–190, 1989). In the present study, two unrelated DNA probes (one specific for a gene encoding a trophozoite surface protein, the other detecting a non-coding repetitive sequence within the genome) were used in Southern hybridization analyses to examine 10 axenic isolates of , established from diverse geographical regions in Australia, together with the Portland-1 isolate from the USA. Both probes identified every isolate unambiguously as belonging to one or other of two genetic clusters. Electrophoretic analysis of the same samples indicated that these clusters correspond to the previously defined genetic groups I and II. No heterogeneity was apparent within the seven group I isolates using either probe. However, when probed with the repetitive sequence, the four isolates belonging to group II exhibited small differences in banding patterns, suggesting that this group may be less homogeneous than group I. The consistency of the Southern blot data with the allozyme groupings confirms group I and group II as distinct genetic subgroups of and establishes that selected restriction sites can be used as taxonomic markers for the purposes of a genetically based systematics for .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2629
1992-12-01
2021-05-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/138/12/mic-138-12-2629.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2629&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abaza S. M., Sullivan J. J. & Visvesvara G. S. ( 1991;). Isoenzyme profiles of four strains of Giardia lamblia and their infectivity to jirds. . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 44, 63-68.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adam R. D. ( 1991;). The biology of Giardia spp. . Microbiological Reviews 55, 706-732.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adam R. D., Nash T. E. & Wellems T. E. ( 1988;). The Giardia lamblia trophozoite contains sets of closely related chromosomes. . Nucleic Acids Research 16, 4555-4567.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Andrews R.H., Handman E., Adams M., Baverstock P. R. & Mitchell G. F. ( 1988;). Genetic characterization of Leishmania isolates at 37 enzyme loci. . International Journal for Parasitology 18, 445-452.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Andrews R.H., Adams M., Boreham P. F. L., Mayrhofbr G. & Meloni B. P. ( 1989;). Giardia intestinalis: electrophoretic evidence for a species complex. . International Journal for Parasitology 19, 183-190.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Andrews R.H., Chilton N. B. & Mayrhofbr G. ( 1992;). Selection of specific genotypes of Giardia intestinalis by growth in vitro and in vivo. . Parasitology 105, (in the Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Archibald S. C., Mitchell R. W., Upcroft J. A., Boreham P. F. L. & Upcroft P. ( 1991;). Variation between human and animal isolates of Giardia as demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting. . International Journal for Parasitology 21, 123-124.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baveja U. K., Jyoti A. S., Kaur M., Aggarwal D.S., Anand B. S. & Nanda R. ( 1986;). lsoenzyme studies of Giardia lamblia isolated from symptomatic cases. . Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 64, 119-126.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bertram M.A., Meyer E. A., Lile J. D., & Morse S. A. ( 1983;). A comparison of isoenzymes of five axenic Giardia isolates. . Journal of Parasitology 69, 793-801.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boreham P. F. L., Phillips R. E. & Shepherd R. W. ( 1987;). Heterogeneity in the responses of clones of Giardia intestinalis to antigiardial drugs. . Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 406-407.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Campbell S. R., Van Keulen H., Erlandsen S. L., Senturia J.B., & Jarroll E. L. ( 1990;). Giardia sp.: Comparison of electrophoretic karyotypes. . Experimental Parasitology 71, 470-482.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chilton N. B., Beveridge I. & Andrews R. H. ( 1992;). Detection by allozyme electrophoresis of cryptic species of Hypodontus macropi (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from macropodial marsupials. . International Journal for Parasitology 22, 271-280.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Erlandsen S. L. & Bemrick W. J. ( 1987;). SEM evidence for a new species, Giardia psittaci. . Journal of Parasitology 13, 623-629.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Erlandsen S. L., Bemrick W. J., Wells C. L., Feely D. E., Knudson L., Campbell S. R., Van Keulen H. & Jarroll E. L. ( 1990;). Axenic culture and characterization of Giardia ardeae from the great blue heron (Ardea herodias). , Journal of Parasitology 16, 717-724.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ey P. L., Khanna K., Manning P.A. & Mayrhofer G. ( 1992;). A gene encoding a Mr 69000 major surface protein of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites. . Molecular and Biochemistry Parasitology (in the Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Feely D. E. ( 1988;). Morphology of the cyst of Giardia microti by light and electron microscopy. . Journal of Protozoology 35, 52-54.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Feinberg A. P. & Vogelstein B. ( 1984;). A technique for radiolabelling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity.. Analytical Biochemistry 132, 6-13.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Filice F. P. ( 1952;). Studies on the cytology and life history of Giardia from the laboratory rat. . University of California Publications in Zoology 51, 53-146.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gillin F. D., Hagblom P., Harwood J., Aley S. B., Reiner D.S., Mccaffery M., So M. & Guiney D. G. ( 1990;). Isolation and expression of the gene for a major surface protein of Giardia lamblia. . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87, 4463-4467.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. De Jonckheere J. F., Gordts B., Kasprzak W., Majewska A. C. & Michels P. A. M. ( 1989;). Cloning of a l·8 kb repeated sequence for the identification and comparison of Giardia intestinalis isolates. . European Journal of Protistology 24, 162-167.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. De Jonckheere J. F., Majewska A. C. & Kasprzak W. ( 1990;). Giardia isolates for primates and rodents display the same molecular polymorphism as human isolates. . Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 39, 23-28.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kabnick K. S. & Peattie D. A. ( 1991;). Giardia: a missing link between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. . American Scientist 79, 34-43.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Keister D. B. ( 1983;). Axenic culture of Giardia lamblia in TYI-S-33 medium supplemented with bile. . Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77, 487-488.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Van Keulen H., Campbell S. R., Erlandsen S. L. & Jarroll E. L. ( 1991;). Cloning and restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA of Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris. . Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 46, 275-284.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lanzendorfer M., Palm P., Grampp B., Peattie D. A. & Zillig W. ( 1992;). Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the largest subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III of Giardia lamblia. . Nucleic Acids Research 20, 1145.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mahbubani M. H., Bej A. K., Perlin M. H., Schaefer F. W., Iii Jakubowski. , W. & Atlas R. M. ( 1992;). Differentiation of Giardia duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes. . Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30, 74-78.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mayrhofer G., Andrews R. H., Ey P. L., Albert M. J., Grimmond T. R. & Merry D. J. ( 1992;). Theuseofsucklingmiceto isolate and grow. Giardia from mammalian faecal specimens for genetic analysis. Parasitology 105, (in the Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Meloni B. P., Lymbery A. J. & Thompson R. C. A. ( 1988;). lsoenzyme electrophoresis of 30 isolates of Giardia from humans and felines. . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 38, 65-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Meloni B. P., Lymbery A. J. & Thompson R. C. A. ( 1989;). Characterization of Giardia isolates using a non-radiolabeled DNA probe, and correlation with the results of isoenzyrne analysis. . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 40, 629-637.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Meyer E. A. ( 1976;). Giardia lamblia: isolation and axenic cultivation. . Experimental Parasitology 39, 101-105.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nash T. E. & Keister D. B. ( 1985;). Differences in excretory-secretory products and surface antigens among 19 isolates of Giardia. . Journal of Infectious Diseases 152, 1166-1171.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nash T. E., Mccutchan T., Keister D., Dame J.B., Conrad J. D. & Gillin F. D. ( 1985;). Restriction-endonuclease analysis of DNA from 15 Giardia isolates obtained from humans and animals. . Journal of Infectious Diseases 152, 64-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Richardson B. J., Baverstock P.R. & Adams M. ( 1986). Allozyme Electrophoresis: a Handbook for Animal Systematics and Population Studies. Sydney:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Smith P. D., Gillin F. D., Kaushal N. A. & Nash T. E. ( 1982;). Antigenic analysis of Giardia Jamblia from Afghanistan, Puerto Rico, Ecuador and Oregon. . Infection and Immunity 36, 714-719.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sogin M. L., Gunderson J. H., Elwood H. J., Alonso R. A. & Peattie D. A. ( 1989;). Phylogenetic meaning of the Kingdom concept: an unusual ribosomal RNA from. Giardia lamblia. Science 243, 75-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Southern E. M. ( 1975;). Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis.. Journal of Molecular Biology 98, 503-517.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thompson R. C. A., Lymbery A. J. & Meloni B. P. ( 1990;). Genetic variation in Giardia Kunstler, 1882: taxonomic and epidemiological significance. . Protozoological Abstracts 14, 1-28.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Upcroft J. A., Boreham P. F. L. & Upcroft P. ( 1989;). Geographic variation in Giardia karyotypes. . International Journal for Parasitology 19, 519-527.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Upcroft J. A., Upcroft P. & Boreham P. F. L. ( 1990;). Drug resistance in Giardia intestinalis. . International Journal for Parasitology 20, 489-496.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2629
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-138-12-2629
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error