Summary: Five bacterial species were transformed using particle gun-technology. No pretreatment of cells was necessary. Physical conditions (helium pressure, target cell distance and gap distance) and biological conditions (cell growth phase, osmoticum concentration, and cell density) were optimized for biolistic transformation of and these conditions were then used to successfully transform and pv. . Transformation rates for were 10 per plate per 0·8 μg DNA. Although transformation rates for the other species were low (<10 per plate per 0·8 μg DNA), successful transformation without optimization for each species tested suggests wide utility of biolistic transformation of prokaryotes. has proven to be a useful model system to determine the effects of relative humidity, particle size and particle coating on efficiency of biolistic transformation.


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