1887

Abstract

Summary: vML3 is a virulent prolate-headed bacteriophage that attacks a genetically well-studied strain family including subsp. strains 712, C2 and ML3. A restriction map was constructed for vML3 using a wide variety of restriction endonucleases. The DNA was highly refractory to restriction; this is a common feature of lytic lactococcal phages. Genome size was estimated as 23 kb, which is similar to the sizes of other phages of the same morphological group. The presence of heat-dissociable DNA fragments was noted in gel electrophoresis of restriction enzyme digests. Cohesive ends were confirmed by pretreating the DNA with T4 ligase, which rendered the composite fragment insensitive to heat. The phage vML3 genome thus consists of linear and non-permuted double-stranded DNA with complementary cohesive ends. The lysin gene from this phage acts as a specific lysis agent against the lactic streptococci. This gene has been cloned and sequenced previously. Further specific subcloning of RV fragments of vML3 DNA has located the lysin gene in the central region of the genome, orientated from right to left. This location was confirmed by hybridization of a lysin gene probe to vML3 DNA. The lysin gene probe showed homology to a number of other prolate-headed phages including P001. The lysin gene of P001 was shown to be located in the central region of its genome. However, the isometric phage P107 did not hybridize, in spite of encoding its own lysin gene.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-6-1285
1991-06-01
2021-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/137/6/mic-137-6-1285.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-6-1285&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bachrach U., Friedman A. 1971; Practical procedures for the purification of bacterial viruses. Applied Microbiology 22:706–715
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Braun V. Jr, Hertwig S., Neve H., Geis A., Teuber M. 1989; Taxonomic differentiation of bacteriophages of Lactococcus lactis by electron microscopy, DNA-DNA hybridization and protein profiles. Journal of General Microbiology 135:2551–2560
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Casadaban M. J., Cohen S. N. 1980; Analysis of gene control signals by DNA fusion and cloning in Escherichia coli. Journal of Molecular Biology 138:179–207
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Coveney J. A., Fitzgerald G. F., Daly C. 1987; Detailed characterisation and comparison of four lactic streptococcal bacter-iophages based on morphology, restriction mapping, DNA homology and structural protein analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53:1439–1447
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Davies F. L., Underwood H. M., Gasson M. J. 1981; The value of plasmid profiles for strain identification in lactic streptococci and the relationship between Streptococcus lactis 712, ML3 and C2. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 51:325–337
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Delbrück M. 1940; Adsorption of bacteriophage and lysis of the host. Journal of General Physiology 23:643–648
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fitzgerald G. F., Daly C., Brown L. R., Gingeras T. R. 1982; ScrFI: a new sequence-specific endonuclease from Streptococcus cremoris. Nucleic Acids Research 10:8171–8179
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Heap H. A., Jarvis A. W. 1980; A comparison of prolate- and isometric-headed lactic streptococcal bacteriophages. New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology 15:75–81
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jarvis A. W. 1984; Differentiation of lactic streptococcal phages into phage species by DNA-DNA homology. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47:343–349
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jarvis A. W., Meyer J. 1986; Electron microscopic heteroduplex study and restriction endonuclease cleavage analysis of the DNA genomes of three lactic streptococcal bacteriophages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51:566–571
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kessler C., Neumaier P. S., Wolf W. 1985; Recognition sequences of restriction nucleases and methylases - a review. Gene 33:1–102
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kruger D. H., Bickle T. A. 1983; Bacteriophage survival: multiple mechanisms for avoiding deoxyribonucleic acid restriction systems of their hosts. Microbiological Reviews 47:345–360
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lautier M., Novel G. 1987; DNA-DNA hybridisations among lactic streptococcal temperate and virulent phages belonging to distinct lytic groups. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 2:151–158
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lennox E. S. 1955; Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage PI. Virology 1:190–206
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lyttle D. J., Petersen G. B. 1984; The DNA of bacteriophage 643: isolation and properties of the DNA of a bacteriophage infecting lactic streptococci. Virology 133:403–415
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Maniatis T., Fritsch E. F., Sambrook J. 1982; Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Norrander J., Kempe T., Messing J. 1983; Construction of improved M13 vectors using oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Gene 26:101–106
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nyiendo J. A. 1975 Studies on host range, fine structure and nucleic acids of lactic streptococcus bacteriophages. PhD thesis Oregon State University; Corvallis:
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Oram J. D., Reiter B. 1965; Phage-associated lysins affecting group N and group D streptococci. Journal of General Microbiology 40:57–70
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Powell I. B., Davidson B. E. 1985; Characterization of streptococcal bacteriophage c6A. Journal of General Virology 66:2737–2741
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Powell I. B., Davidson B. E. 1986; Resistance to in vitro restriction of DNA from lactic streptococcal bacteriophage c6A. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51:1358–1360
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Powell I. B., Arnold P. M., Hillier A. J., Davidson B. E. 1989; Molecular comparison of prolate- and isometric-headed bacteriophages of lactococci. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 35:860–866
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reiter B., Oram J. D. 1963; Group N streptococcal phage lysin. Journal of General Microbiology 32:29–32
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Relano P., Mata M., Bonneau M., Ritzenthaler P. 1987; Molecular characterization and comparison of 38 virulent and temperate bacteriophages of Streptococcus lactis. Journal of General Microbiology 133:3053–3063
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Saxelin M.-L., Nurmiaho-Lassila E. L., ., Merilainen V.-T., Forsen R. I. 1986; Ultrastructure and host specificity of bacteriophages of Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc cremoris from Finnish fermented milk ‘villi’. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52:771–777
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Shearman C., Underwood H., Jury K., Gasson M. 1989; Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of a Lactococcus bacteriophage lysin gene. Molecular and General Genetics 218:214–221
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Southern E. M. 1975; Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. Journal of Molecular Biology 98:503–517
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Stackebrandt E., Woese C. R. 1981; The evolution of prokaryotes. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 32:132
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Terzaghi B. E., & Sandine W. E. 1975; Improved medium for lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. Applied Microbiology 29:807–813
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Teuber M., Lembke J. 1983; The bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria with emphasis on genetic aspects of group N lactic streptococci. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49:283–295
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Teuber M., Loof M. 1987; Genetic characterization of lactic streptococci bacteriophages. Streptococcal Genetics250–258 Ferretti J. J., Curtis R. E. III Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Thuring R. W. J., Saunders J. P. M., Borst P. 1975; A freeze- squeeze method for recovering long DNA from agarose gels. Analytical Biochemistry 66:213–220
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vieira J., Messing J. 1982; The pUC plasmids, an M13mp7-d system for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing with synthetic universal primers. Gene 19:259–268
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Weidel W. 1951; Über die Zellmembran von E. coli B: Präparierung der Membranen gegenüber den Bakteriophagen. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 66:251–258
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Weidel W. 1958; Bacterial viruses (with particular reference to adsorption/penetration). Annual Review of Microbiology 12:27–48
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Yehle C. O. 1978; Genome-linked protein associated with the 5′ terminal of bacteriophage ϕ29 DNA. Journal of Virology 27:776–783
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Yoshikawa H., Ito J. 1981; Terminal properties and short inverted repeats of the small Bacillus bacteriophage genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 782596–2600
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-6-1285
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-6-1285
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error