1887

Abstract

The genes encoding the enzymes of IMP biosynthesis in constitute the operon, whereas the genes encoding GMP biosynthetic enzymes, (GMP synthetase) and (IMP dehydrogenase), and the gene encoding adenylosuccinate (sAMP) synthetase all occur as single units. The gene encodes an enzyme involved in both IMP and AMP biosynthesis and is located in the operon. The levels of purine biosynthetic enzymes (except for GMP synthetase) were repressed in cells grown in the presence of purine compounds. Transcription of the operon is regulated negatively by adenine and guanine compounds. Our results suggest that ATP and guanine (or hypoxanthine) act as low molecular mass repressors. The level of IMP dehydrogenase was repressed by guanosine, but not in the presence of adenine, and was negatively correlated with the GTP/ATP pools ratio. The level of sAMP synthetase was repressed by adenine and increased by guanosine, and was positively correlated with the GTP/ATP pools ratio. It appears that the mode of regulating purine biosynthetic enzyme levels coincides with the cellular need for the individual enzymes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-10-2387
1991-10-01
2021-05-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/137/10/mic-137-10-2387.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-10-2387&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arnvig K., Hove-Jensen B., Switzer R. L. 1990; Purification and properties of phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis . European Journal of Biochemistry 192:195–200
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boylan R. J., Mendelson N. H., Brooks P., Young F. E. 1972; Regulation of the bacterial cell wall: analysis of a mutant of Bacillus subtilis defective in biosynthesis of teichoic acid. Journal of Bacteriology 110:281–290
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chapman A. G., Atkinson D. E. 1977; Adenine nucleotide concentrations and turnover rates. Their correlation with biological activity in bacteria and yeast. Advances in Microbial Physiology 15:253–306
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Choi K. Y., Zalkin H. 1990; Regulation of Escherichia coli pyrC by the purine regulon repressor protein. Journal of Bacteriology 172:3201–3207
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ebbole D. J., Zalkin H. 1987; Cloning and characterization of a 12-gene cluster from Bacillus subtilis encoding nine enzymes for de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262:8274–8287
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ebbole D. J., Zalkin H. 1988; Detection of pur operon-attenuated mRNA and accumulated degradation intermediates in Bacillus subtilis . Journal of Biological Chemistry 263:10894–10902
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ebbole D. J., Zalkin H. 1989a; Bacillus subtilis pur operon expression and regulation. Journal of Bacteriology 171:2136–2141
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ebbole D. J., Zalkin H. 1989b; Interaction of a putative repressor protein with an extended control region of the Bacillus subtilis pur operon. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264:3553–3561
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Freese E., Heinze J. E., Galliers E. M. 1979; Partial purine deprivation causes sporulation of Bacillus subtilis in the presence of excess ammonia, glucose and phosphate. Journal of General Microbiology 115:193–205
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Grandoni J. A., Switzer R. L., Makaroff C. A., Zalkin H. 1989; Evidence that the iron-sulfur cluster of Bacillus subtilis glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase determines stability of the enzyme to degradation in vivo . Journal of Biological Chemistry 264:6058–6064
    [Google Scholar]
  11. He B., Shiau A., Choi K. Y., Zalkin H., Smith J. M. 1990; Genes of Escherichia coli pur regulon are negatively controlled by a repressor-operator interaction. Journal of Bacteriology 172:4555–4562
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Houlberg U., Jensen K. F. 1983; Role of hypoxanthine and guanine in regulation of Salmonella typhimurium pur gene expression. Journal of Bacteriology 153:837–845
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jensen K. F. 1989; Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium pyr gene expression: effect of changing both purine and pyrimidine nucleotide pools. Journal of General Microbiology 135:805–815
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jensen K. F., Houlberg U., Nygaard P. 1979; Thin-layer chromatographic methods to isolate 32P-labeled 5-phosphoribosyl-α1-pyrophosphate (PRPP): determination of cellular PRPP pools and assay of PRPP synthetase activity. Analytical Biochemistry 98:254–263
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kanzaki N., Miyagawa K. 1990; Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis IMP dehydrogenase gene. Nucleic Acids Research 18:6710
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meng L. M., Nygaard P. 1990; Identification of hypoxanthine and guanine as the corepressors for the purine regulon genes of Escherichia coli . Molecular Microbiology 4:2187–2192
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Meng L. M., Kilstrup M., Nygaard P. 1990; Autoregulation of PurR repressor synthesis and involvement of purR in the regulation of purB purC purL purMN and guaBA expression in Escherichia coli . European Journal of Biochemistry 187:373–379
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Momose H., Nishikawa H., Shiio I. 1966; Regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis in Bacillus subtilis 1. Enzyme repression by purine derivatives. Journal of Biochemistry 59:325–331
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Neuhard J., Nygaard P. 1987; Biosynthesis and conversion of nucleotides, purines and pyrimidines. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium : Cellular and Molecular Biology445–473 Neidhardt F. C., Ingraham J. L., Low K. B., Magasanik B., Schaechter M., Umbarger H. E. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Neuhard J., Meng L. M., Sorensen K., Kelln R. A. 1990; Purine control of pyrC expression in Salmonella typhimurium . International Journal of Purine and Pyrimidine Research 1:61–66
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nishikawa H., Momose H., Shiio I. 1967; Regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis in Bacillus subtilis 2. Specificity of purine derivatives for enzyme repression. Journal of Biochemistry 62:92–98
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nygaard P. 1983; Utilization of preformed purine bases and nucleosides. Metabolism of Nucleotides, Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Microorganisms27–93 Munch-Petersen A. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nygaard P., Duckert P., Saxild H. H. 1988; Purine gene organization and regulation in Bacillus subtilis . Genetics and Biotechnology of Bacilli 257–61 Ganesan A. T., Hoch J. A. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Piggot P. J., Hoch J. A. 1985; Revised genetic linkage map of Bacillus subtilis . Microbiological Reviews 49:158–179
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rolfes R. J., Zalkin H. 1988; Purification of the Escherichia coli purine regulon repressor and identification of corepressors. Journal of Bacteriology 172:5637–5642
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Saxild H. H., Nygaard P. 1987; Genetic and physiological characterization of Bacillus subtilis mutants resistant to purine analogs. Journal of Bacteriology 169:2977–2983
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Saxild H. H., Nygaard P. 1988; Gene-enzyme relationship of purine biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus subtilis . Molecular and General Genetics 211:160–167
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wilson H. R., Turnbough C. L. 1990; Role of the purine repressor in the regulation of pyrimidine gene expression in Escherichia coli . Journal of Bacteriology 172:3208–3213
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Young F. E., Wilson G. A. 1974; Bacillus subtilis. Handbook of Genetics 169–114 King R. C. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Zalkin H., Ebbole D. J. 1988; Organization and regulation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in Bacillus subtilis . Journal of Biological Chemistry 263:1595–1598
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-10-2387
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-137-10-2387
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error