1887

Abstract

were exposed to extracts of human neutrophil granules and effects on gonococcal growth and membranes were determined. Enumeration of gonococci by phase-contrast microscopy at 0 and 60 min revealed that they underwent very limited cell division after exposure to granule extract. At 60 min, treated gonococci tended to clump, and some lost their refractivity under phase-contrast optics, indicating membrane damage. Treated and untreated gonococci utilized oxygen at similar rates at time 0; treated gonococci utilized oxygen at a relatively constant rate for 60 min, even though colony-forming ability (i.e. viability) decreased by 90%, whereas untreated gonococci showed a steadily increasing rate of oxygen consumption over the same period, which essentially paralleled increase in colony-forming ability. Membrane ultrastructure of untreated and treated gonococci was compared in thin section by transmission electron microscopy. Extract treatment resulted in a time-related increase in disruption of the bacterial outer membrane, which became apparent almost immediately after treatment. This was accompanied by increasingly aberrant septum structure. Extract treatment also increased the resolution of peptidoglycan by electron microscopy, as early as 10 min after treatment. These data suggest that extract treatment of gonococci caused a rapid loss of the ability to form colonies on agar concomitant with alteration of gonococcal peptidoglycan and outer-membrane structure, but with little alteration of inner-membrane function.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-2-509
1988-02-01
2021-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/134/2/mic-134-2-509.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-2-509&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Blake M.S., Gotschlich E.C., Swanson J. 1981; Effects of proteolytic enzymes on the outer membrane proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. . Infection and Immunity 33:212–222
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Borregaard N., Heiple J.M., Simons E.R., Clark R.A. 1983; Subcellular localization of the 6-cytochrome component of the human neutrophil microbicidal oxidase: translocation during activation. Journal of Cell Biology 97:52–61
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Buck P., Rest R. 1981; Effects of human neutrophil granule extracts on macromolecular synthesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. . Infection and Immunity 33:426–433
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Daly J.A., Lee T.J., Spitznagel J.K., Sparling P.F. 1982; Gonococci with mutations to low-level penicillin resistance exhibit increased sensitivity to the oxygen-independent bactericidal activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule extracts. Infection and Immunity 35:826–833
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Eaton L.J., Rest R.F. 1983; In vivo degradation of gonococcal outer membrane proteins within human leukocyte phagolysosomes. Infection and Immunity 42:1034–1040
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Elsbach P., Weiss J. 1983; A reevaluation of the roles of the oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent microbicidal systems of phagocytes. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 5:843–853
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Elsbach P., Weiss J. 1985; Oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms of microbicidal activity of neutrophils. Immunology Letters II:159–163
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ganz T., Selsted M.E., Szklarek D., Harwig S.S.L., Daher K., Bainton D.F., Lehrer R.I. 1985; Defensins. Natural peptide antibiotics of human neutrophils 76:1427–1435
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Goodell E.W., Fazio M., Tomasz A. 1978; Effect of benzylpenicillin on the synthesis and structure of the cell envelope of Neisseria gonor-rhoeae. . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 3:514–526
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Van Houte A.-J., Elsbach P., Verkleij A., Weiss J. 1977; Killing of Escherichia coli by a granulocyte fraction occurs without recognizable ultrastructural alterations in the bacterial envelope, as studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Infection and Immunity 15:556–559
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kellogg D.S. Jr Peacock W.L. Jr Deacon W.E., Brown L., Pirkle C.I. 1963; Neisseria gonorrhoeaee. I. Virulence genetically linked to clonal variation. . Journal of Bacteriology 85:1274–1279
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kellogg D.S. Jr Cohen I.R., Norins A.C., Schroeter A.L., Reising G. 1968; Neisseria gonorrhoeaee. II. Colonial variation and pathogenicity during 35 months in vitro. Journal of Bacteriology 96:596–605
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Neirinck L.G., Devoe I.W. 1981; Anomalous cellular morphology and growth characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis in subminimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19:911–916
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Neirinck L.G., Devoe I.W., Ingram J.M. 1980; Events leading to cell death and lysis of Neisseria meningitidis in low concentrations of penicillin G. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 17:715–724
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Odeberg H., Olsson 1. 1976; Mechanisms for the microbicidal activity of cationic proteins of human granulocytes. Infection and Immunity 14:1269–1275
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Rest R.F. 1979; Killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granule extracts. Infection and Immunity 25:574–579
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Rest R.F., Pretzer E. 1981; Degradation of gonococcal outer membrane proteins by neutrophil lysosomal proteases. Infection and Immunity 34:62–68
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rest R.F., Cooney M.H., Spitznagel J.K. 1977; Susceptibility of lipopolysaccharide mutants to the bactericidal action of human neutrophil lysosomal fractions. Infection and Immunity 16:145–151
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rest R.F., Cooney M.H., Spitznagel J.K. 1978; Bactericidal activity of specific and azurophil granules from human neutrophils: studies with outer-membrane mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2. Infection and Immunity 19:131–137
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rest R.F., Fisher S.H., Ingham Z.Z., Jones J.F. 1982; Interactions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with human neutrophils: effects of serum and gonococcal opacity on phagocyte killing and chemiluminescence. Infection and Immunity 36:737–744
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Reynolds E.S. 1963; The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology 17:208–212
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rock J.P., Rest R.F. 1985; Effect of human neutrophil lysosomal contents on peptidoglycan turnover and membrane structure in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. . In The Pathogenic Neisseriae pp. 344–351 Edited by Schoolnik G. K. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Shafer W.M., Onunka V., Hitchcock P.J. 1986; A spontaneous mutant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased resistance to neutrophil granule proteins. Journal of Infectious Diseases 153:910–917
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Spitznagel J.K. 1984; Nonoxidative antimicrobial reactions of leukocytes. In Regulation of Leukocyte Function, pp. 283–344 Edited by Snyderman R. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Swanson J. 1978; Studies on gonococcus infection. XIV. Cell wall protein differences among color/ opacity variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. . Infection and Immunity 21:292–302
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Weiss J., Franson R.C., Schmeidler K., Elsbach P. 1976; Reversible envelope effects during and after killing of Escherichia coli W by a highly purified rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte fraction. Biochimica et biophysica acta 436:154–169
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Winter D.B., Morse S.A. 1968; Physiology and metabolism of pathogenic neisseriae: partial characterization of the respiratory chain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. . Journal of Bacteriology 123:631–636
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-2-509
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-2-509
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error