1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: The lipid compositions of two azole-sensitive (A and B2630) and two azole-resistant (AD and KB) strains of the opportunistic fungal pathogen were studied by using several lipid extraction procedures: no differences were observed between the lipid content or total phospholipid/neutral lipid ratios of the four strains. All contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as major phospholipids, with smaller amounts of phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the relative proportions of these lipids differed between all four strains. The fatty acid composition of each major phospholipid within each strain differed, and there were also interstrain differences. A marked effect of culture growth phase in batch culture on lipid composition was observed. The major neutral lipids in each strain were triacylglycerol, non-esterified sterol and non-esterified fatty acid. The fatty acid compositions of the three fatty-acid-containing neutral lipids were distinct from each other and the phospholipids, and there were also interstrain differences. All strains possessed (lyso)phospholipase activity, which was non-specific. The proportions of triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acid did not vary between strains, but the azole-resistant strains AD and KB contained more non-esterified sterol, giving them a phospholipid/sterol ratio approximately half that of azole-sensitive strains. There appeared to be a relationship between the phospholipid/sterol ratio of exponentially growing sensitive strains and their ability to take up azole; this did not extend to the resistant strains, which either did not take up azole (AD and KB) or took it up at a faster rate (Darlington) than sensitive strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-9-2421
1986-09-01
2022-01-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/132/9/mic-132-9-2421.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-9-2421&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ballman G. E., Chaffin W. L. 1979; Lipid synthesis during reinitiation of growth from stationary phase cultures of Candida albicans . Mycopathologia 67:39–43
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Banno Y., Yamada T., Nozawa Y. 1985; Secreted phospholipases of the dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans; separation of three enzymes and some biological properties. Sabouraudia 23:47–54
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barrett-Bee K., Hayes Y., Wilson R. G., Ryley J. F. 1985; A comparison of phospholipase activity, cellular adherence and pathogenicity of yeasts. Journal of General Microbiology 131:1217–1221
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bligh E.G., Dyer W. J. 1959; A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 37:911–917
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bradford M. M. 1976; A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72:248–254
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brasseur R., van den Bosch C., van den Bossche H., van den Bossche H., Ruysschaert J. M. 1983; Mode of insertion of miconazole, ketoconazole and deacylated ketoconazole in lipid layers: a conformational analysis. Biochemical Pharmacology 32:2175–2180
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Christie W. W. 1982; Lipid Analysis. , 2nd edn. Oxford: Pergamon Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Combs T. J., Guarneri J. J., Pisano M. A. 1968; The effect of sodium chloride on the lipid content of Candida albicans . Mycologia 60:1232–1239
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Connolly T. J., Carruthers A., Melchior D. L. 1985; Effect of bilayer cholesterol content on reconstituted human erythrocyte sugar transporter activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260:2617–2620
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Coolbear K. P., Berde C. B., Keough K. M. W. 1983; Gel to liquid crystalline phase transitions of aqueous dispersions of polyunsaturated mixed-acid phosphatidylcholine. Biochemistry 22:1466–1473
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cope J. 1980; Mode of action of miconazole on Candida albicans . Journal of General Microbiology 119:245–251
    [Google Scholar]
  12. de Kruyff B., de Greef W. J., van Eyk R. V. W., Demel R. A., van Deenen L. L. M. 1973; The effect of different fatty acid and sterol composition on the erythritol flux through the cell membrane of Acholeplasma laidlawii . Biochimica et biophysica acta 298:479–99
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Deverall B. J. 1981 Fungal Parasitism, 2nd edn. Southampton: Edward Arnold. DIFCO; Manual of Dehydrated Culture Media and Reagents for Microbiological and Clinical Laboratory Procedures, 9th edn. 1953250–252 Detroit, USA: Difco Laboratories;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dittmer J. C., Lester R. L. 1964; A simple, specific spray for the detection of phospholipids on thin-layer chromatograms. Journal of Lipid Research 5:126–127
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Folch J., Lees M., Stanley G. H. S. 1957; A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226:497–509
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Getz S., Jakovic S., Heywood J., Frank J., Rabinowitz M. 1970; Two dimensional thin-layer chromatographic system for phospholipid separation. The analysis of yeast phospholipids. Biochimica et biophysica acta 218:441–452
    [Google Scholar]
  17. de Gier J., Mandersloot J. G., van Deenen L. L. M. 1968; Lipid composition and permeability of liposomes. Biochimica et biophysica acta 150:666–675
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gonzales R. A., Parks L. W. 1977; Acid labilization of sterols for extraction from yeast. Biochimica et biophysica acta 489:507–509
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Grover A. K., Cushley R. J. 1979; Cholesterol ester distribution in lecithin bilayer membranes. Artherosclerosis 32:87–91
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hamilton-Miller J. M. T. 1973; Chemistry and biology of the polyene macrolide antibiotics. Bacteriological Reviews 37:166–196
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hammond S. M. 1977; Biological activity of polyene antibiotics. In Progress in Medicinal Chemistry vol. 14 pp. 105–179 Edited by Ellis G. P., West G. B. North Holland: Elsevier Biomedical Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Harwood J. L., Russell N. J. 1984 Lipids in Plants and Microbes London: George Allen & Unwin;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Harrington C. A., Fenimore D. C., Eichberg J. 1980; Fluorometric analysis of polyunsaturated phosphatidylinositol and other phospholipids in the picomole range using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Analytical Biochemistry 106:307–313
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Holt R. J., Azmi A. 1978; Miconazole-resistant Candida . Lancet I:50–51
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Horsburgh C. R., Kirkpatrick C. W. 1983; Long-term therapy of chronic mucocutaneous candi-dosis with ketoconazole: experience with 21 patients. American Journal of Medicine 74:23–29
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kates M. 1972; Techniques of lipidology. In Isolation, Analysis and Identification of Lipids . Edited by Work T. S., Work E. New York: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kates M., Baxter R. M. 1962; Lipid composition of mesophilic and psychrophilic yeasts Candida species) as influenced by environmental temperatures. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 40:1213–1227
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kates M., Pugh E. L., Ferrante G. 1984; Regulation of membrane fluidity by desaturases. In Biomembranes vol. 12, Membrane Fluidity . pp. 379–395 Edited by Kates M., Manson L. A. New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Leyva A., Kelley W. N. 1974; Measurement of DNA in cultured human cells. Analytical Biochemistry 62173–179
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lloyd G. M., Russell N. J. 1984; The isolation and characterisation of cytoplasmic and outer membranes from Micrococcus cryophilus . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 30:1357–1366
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Marinetti G. V. 1962; Chromatographic separation, identification and analysis of phosphatides. Journal of Lipid Research 3:1–20
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mason J. I., Murry B. A., Olcott M., Skeetz J. J. 1985; Imidazole antimycotics: inhibitors of steroid aromatase. Biochemical Pharmacology 34:1087–1092
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nishi K., Ichikawa H., Tomochika K., Okabe A., Kanemasa Y. 1973; Lipid composition of Candida albicans and effect of growth temperature on it. Acta medica Okayama 27:73–81
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Odds F. C. 1979 Candida and Candidosis Leicester: Leicester University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Owen J. S., Bruckdorfer K. R., Day R. C., Mcintyre N. 1982; Decreased erythrocyte membrane fluidity and altered lipid composition in human liver disease. Journal of Lipid Research 23:124–132
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pierce A. M., Pierce W. D., Unrau A. M., Oehlsohlager A. C. 1978; Lipid composition and polyene antibiotic resistance of Candida albicans mutants. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 56:135–142
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Pugh D., Cawson R. A. 1975; The cytochemical localization of phospholipase A and lysophospholipase in Candida albicans . Sabouraudia 13:110–115
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Russell N. J., Harwood J. L. 1979; Changes in the acyl lipid composition of photosynthetic bacteria grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. Biochemical Journal 181:339–345
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Russell N. J., Volkman J. K. 1980; The effect of temperature on wax ester composition in the psychrophilic bacterium Micrococcus cryophilus ATCC 15174. Journal of General Microbiology 118:131–141
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ryley J. F., Wilson R. G., Barrett-Bee K. J. 1984; Azole resistance in Candida albicans . Sabouraudia 22:53–63
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Speller D. C. E. 1980 Antifungal Chemotherapy New York: John Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Uno J., Shigematsu M. L., Arai T. 1982; Primary site of action of ketoconazole on Candida albicans . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 21:912–918
    [Google Scholar]
  43. van den Bossche H., Ruysschaert J. M., Defrise-Quertain F., Willemsens G., Cornelissen F., Marichal P., Cools W., van Cutsem J. 1982; The interaction of miconazole and ketoconazole with lipids. Biochemical Pharmacology 31:2609–2617
    [Google Scholar]
  44. van den Bossche W., Willemsens G., Cools W., Marichal P., Lauwers W. 1983; Hypothesis on the molecular basis of the antifungal activity of N-substituted imidazoles and triazoles. Biochemical Society UK Transactions 11:665–666
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Warnock D W., Johnson G. M., Richardson M. D. 1983; Modified response to ketoconazole of Candida albicans from a treatment failure. Lancet I:642–643
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Weete J. D. 1980 Lipid Biochemistry of Fungi and Other Organisms New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wells M. A., Dittmer J. C. 1963; The use of Sephadex for the removal of nonlipid contaminants from lipid extracts. Biochemistry 2:1259–1263
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-9-2421
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-9-2421
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error